Risk Assessment of Maritime Navigation across the Greater

Risk Assessment of Maritime Navigation across the Greater

Risk Assessment of Maritime Navigation across the Greater Caribbean Region (GCR) Dawn Seepersad Student - PhD Geoinformatics The University of the West Indies Introduction This study will conduct a risk assessment of maritime navigation across the GCR. In this presentation a case is made for conducting a risk assessment across the GCR. 2 About the Presenter

The University of the West Indies: Student - PhD. Geoinformatics Programme MSc. Geoinformatics BSc. Geomatics Engineering and Land Management GIS Assistant Niue Hydrographic Risk Assessment Land Information New Zealand (LINZ), Wellington GIS Intern Flood Risk Assessment of the Greater Toronto Area York University, Canada 3 Problem The availability and quality of hydrographic data and support for navigational practices across the GCR might be improved to: 1. Support safety of life at sea 2. Reduce the risk of marine pollution

3. Support the expansion of economic development 4 Factors Affected by the Problem 1. Trade and marine traffic 2. Economic expansion 3. Advantages of our geopolitical location 4. Freight cost and international competitiveness 5. Salvage challenges for mega-ships 6. Obligations under SOLAS & MARPOL 5 1 Hindrance to the Rate of Increase in Trade & Marine Traffic Developing economies

Developed economies WTO Agreement Implemented Volume of Exports of Developed, Developing and Transitioning Economies: 1990 2009 Index: 2000 = 100. Source: WTO Secretariat Estimates 6 2 Limit to Economic Expansion in the GCR Most trade takes place in the ocean space because of competitive transportation costs and economies of scale. 100

Percentage 80 Maritime 60 Air 40 Other 20

0 Food & Line Animals Beverages Animal & & Tobacco Vegetable Oils Machinery Animal & Chemical Other Classified Vegetable products Manufacturers & transport manufactured equip

Oils etc. articles International and Regional Trade of Goods that occur across the Greater Caribbean Region, 2003. Source: (Sanchez and Wilmsmeier 2009) 7 2 Limit to Economic Expansion in the GCR Potential for positive growth of export across CARICOM Trinidads exported value for 2015: 12 bn USD Annual export growth between 2014 2015, % 40

Export Growth of All Products CARICOM 20 0 The bubble size is proportional to the exported value in 2015 of countries - 20 - 40 - 15

- 10 -5 0 5 10 Annual export growth between 2011 2015, % Source: International Trade Centre 8

2 Limit to Economic Expansion in the GCR The Caribbean is the number once cruise line destination in the world Cruise Line Destinations Source: Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) (2016) 9 3 - Advantages of the Geopolitical Location of the GCR would not be Recognized Transshipment triangle allows for hub and spoke as well as

spillover opportunities. Freeport Rio Haina Kingston (Sanchez and Wilmsmeier 2009) Port of Spain Colon Cartagen a

Puerto Cabello 10 3 - Advantages of the Geopolitical Location of the GCR would not be Recognized Alaska China USA /Marine Traffic 2016 11

4 Increase of Freight Cost may Decrease International Competitiveness Lower freight cost can come from: 1. Increased traffic and volume 2. Better transport technology 3. Lower insurance costs, berthing fees and port handling charges 12 5 - Potential Increase of Marine Incidences & Salvage Challenges for Mega-Ships Billion dollar shipping loss scenario: 19 000 container vessel capsizes/sinks resulting in total loss of the vessel and subsequent removal of the wreck.

Hull loss Cargo loss $200m 19,000 containers at $35,000 per container = $532m Removal of wreck and liabilities $300m Total

$1 bn long-term pollution 13 6 - Inability to Fulfill International Obligations Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, requires contracting governments to provide navigation safety services MARPOL Convention - preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations 14

Strategy for Risk Assessment of Maritime Navigation Redefining LINZ Strategy to the Greater Caribbean Region 15 Existing Strategies for Risk Assessment & Prioritization of Surveys Strategies for risk assessment & prioritization of surveys have been developed maritime departments including: 1. Land Information New Zealand 2. Canadian Hydrographic Service

3. Arctic Region Hydrographic Commission 4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 16 Use of LINZ Risk Assessment Strategy in the GCR 1. It is risk based and transparent against a detailed set of criteria 2. S-AIS vessel position information are used for the identification of shipping routes 3. The weighted overlay method is used therefore improving the accuracy of the results 4. It geographically identifies the cost or benefit of hydrographic surveying 5. The strategy was developed for a marine environment which is similar in many instances to the GCRs.

17 LINZ Hydrographic Risk Assessment Weighted Overlay Method 3 Criteria: i. Vessel Traffic potential loss of life & potential pollution ii. Likelihood factors likely to cause a marine incident iii. Consequence factors likely to be affected by a marine incident Hydrographic Risk = Traffic * Likelihood * Consequence 18 Key Datasets Required for the Model Vessel Traffic Criteria Satellite

automatic identification system (S-AIS) Likelihood Consequence Criteria Criteria Met-ocean conditions Environmentally

Navigational sensitive areas complexity Culturally sensitive Aids to navigation areas Bathymetry Economically sensitive Navigational hazards areas 19 Weighted Overlay 1. The study area is divided

into grid cells. New Zealand North Island The cell size determined by the granularity of the data. Beyond 12nm 2km Inside 12 nm 1km Harbor limits 500m New Zealand South Island 20

Weighted Overlay 2. Each cell value for each input is multiplied by the inputs weight of importance. 3. The resulting cell values are added for each criteria (vessel traffic, likelihood and consequence). 4. Hydrographic Risk = Traffic * Likelihood * Consequence 21 Results Establish relative level of risk Use heat-map to show risk levels at different locations

Assist policymakers in prioritizing chart Level of Risk Nil Insignificant Low Moderate Heightened Significant improvements & other safety mitigations 22

LINZ Cost Benefit Analysis Parameters of Cost Benefit Analysis include: 1. Cost of surveying 2. Loss of life reduction benefit/yr 3. Pollution reduction benefit/yr 4. Economic development benefit/yr 5. 2% interest rate 6. Sum of benefits A 10 year forecast is made where the benefits are realized once the surveying is completed (i.e. year two). 23 Proposed Research There are limitations to directly implementing the LINZ strategy within the

GCR General Objective: To conduct a risk assessment of maritime navigation across the GCR Specific Objectives: Mapping of: 1. Areas of risk within the maritime navigation areas across the GCR 2. The economic feasibility of risk management and mitigation plans 24 Proposed Strategy To conduct a risk assessment of maritime navigation across the GCR: 1. To adopt the LINZ strategy as a foundation 2. Better define the risk criteria components to fit the GCR 3. Conduct the cost benefit analysis using direct costs and contingent valuation methods

25 Stakeholder Support Requirements to move forward: 1. Support from experts to construct the weighted overlay 2. Evidence of the compliance with SOLAS and MARPOL regulations for your region, for example is there a VTS? 3. Information regarding: i. Shipping ii. Navigational practices 26

Conclusion The risk assessment of maritime navigation across the GCR for the prioritization of hydrographic surveys is necessary for the: 1. Safe and efficient navigation of vessels. 2. Protection of environmental and cultural resources within the maritime environment 3. Potential economic expansion 4. To prepare the GCR for future demands in the maritime transport system As a regional project support is required from stakeholders. 27

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