Radiology Case Presentation Sami Natour, MS4 UVA School

Radiology Case Presentation Sami Natour, MS4 UVA School

Radiology Case Presentation Sami Natour, MS4 UVA School of Medicine Clinical History

E.L. is a 58 year old male with a past medical history of PVD, aortic stenosis, HTN, HLD, who was transferred from an OSH for management of MSSA bacteremia complicated by endocarditis and presumed septic emboli to the brain Presented to OSH with confusion and headache and found to have MSSA bacteremia of unknown source. He began treatment with nafcillin prior to transfer TEE demonstrated severe AR and multiple aortic valve vegetations MRI Brain demonstrated findings suspicious for septic emboli Notable Physical Exam Findings, Labs Afebrile, Vitals were within normal limits on presentation to UVA Gen: Oriented to person, place, and time.

Neck: Normal ROM, supple CV: Holosystolic and early diastolic murmurs loudest at the right 2 nd intercostal space, radiating to the carotids. RRR. Pulm: Crackles heard at bilateral bases Abd: Soft, no tenderness Skin: No Janeway lesions or Osler nodes appreciated Notable Labs WBC: 28.87 BUN/Cr: 27/1.4 Hgb: 8.3 AST/ALT: 38/<6 PLT: 219 - 7/29, 7/30, 8/8 Blood cultures positive for MSSA

Imaging (performed at OSH) TEE (AV vegetations, severe AR) MRI C-Spine, CT Abd/Pelvis, CXR all unremarkable MRI Brain demonstrated (as follows) T2/FLAIR

DWI T2/FLAIR Hospital Course Patient was admitted to the ACS service and a multidisciplinary team was consulted for management. A source could not be identified and he continued to spike fevers. The decision was made to schedule him for AV repair. Prior to his surgery, he developed

chest pain with dyspnea and ST depressions in V1-V4 concerning for posterior MI. Anticoagulation was withheld due to risk of hemorrhagic conversion of brain lesions. Patient was transferred to the CCU for hemodynamic optimization. Nitroglycerin drip was started with resolution of chest pain. On the night of transfer, his respiratory status worsened requiring intubation and troponins trended upward. He was taken for cardiac catheterization with revascularization of obtuse marginal artery but incomplete aspiration from left circumflex. After this procedure he became progressively hypotensive requiring vasopressors and ultimately went into PEA arrest. The patients cause of death was presumed to be cardiogenic shock due to acute MI from septic emboli into coronary circulation.

Radiographic features Diffuse cerebral (cortical, subcortical, and deep white matter) and single right cerebellar foci of increased T2/FLAIR signal and restricted diffusion corresponding to PCA and MCA territories T2/FLAIR hyperintensity differential: - CNS tumors (primary and metastatic disease) - Vasculitis (e.g. Behcets disease)

- Infectious (e.g. abcess or embolic disease) - Demyelinating diseases - Ischemic pathology - Traumatic injury Use history and clinical findings to guide this broad differential References 1. Hoen B, Duval X. Clinical practice. Infective endocarditis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 11;368(15):1425-33. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1206782. Review. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 27;368(26):2536. PubMed

PMID: 23574121. 2. Guzmn-De-Villoria JA, Ferreiro-Argelles C, Fernndez-Garca P. Differential diagnosis of T2 hyperintense brainstem lesions: Part 2. Diffuse lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2010 Jun;31(3):260-74. doi: 10.1053/j.sult.2010.03.002. Review. PubMed PMID: 20483393.

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