Creating Critical Thinkers Samantha Emswiler M.A. Philosophy, University

Creating Critical Thinkers Samantha Emswiler M.A. Philosophy, University

Creating Critical Thinkers Samantha Emswiler M.A. Philosophy, University of Miami A pupil from whom nothing is ever demanded

which he cannot do, never does all he can. J.S. Mill Step One: Recognizing the extent of the problem with lack of critical thinking skills

How do students across the U.S. do on the standard critical thinking test given to high school students and students in the first two years of college? U.S. 2-year Institutions Average on TER Proficient Marginally Not Proficient 2013 4% 14%

StepTwo: Recognizing the importance of creating good critical Being a good critical thinker prepares thinkers one for being a better citizen, a better student and a better future employee.

93% of employers agree that candidates demonstrated capacity to think critically, communicate clearly, and solve complex problems is more important than their undergraduate major. Employers want someone who can: Come ready to work the first day Communicate and think critically Work in teams

Use technology Speak multiple languages Think and communicate globally Becoming a critical thinker is valuable because it means joining the worldwide, multicultural quest truth.carried

Inquiry for is being out right now by students, scholars, researchers, and teachers all over the world ... their inquiry extends from what was in the past, through what is going on right

Teaching critical thinking gives students the skills they will need to engage in good academic inquiry, to become part of the global community and to participate well in democratic institutions and processes. Step Three:

Begin by teaching what critical thinking is and how a good critical thinker behaves What is Critical Thinking?

It is a set of intellectual skills and psychological habits that make it easier to a) solve problems well b) discover truths and c) communicate clearly. What are good critical thinkers like? 1) Good critical thinkers are rational, curious persons who seek the truth:

they value truth as the ultimate goal of inquiry. They seek out information, including contrary evidence, to test (verify or falsify) their own beliefs and reasoning. Their goal is to find the truth not confirm their own opinion. They recognize that they could be wrong. They are open to revising their reasoning. Good critical thinkers are open-minded, fair and empathetic:

2) They value other people and can imagine another persons point of view, assumptions, values and reasoning. They practice intellectual humility and recognize what they do not know. 3) Good critical thinkers are intellectually autonomous, strong and

courageous: They think for themselves in spite of adversity; they persevere in their inquiry and reasoning through obstacles such as social pressure. Step Four: Teach what critical thinkers AVOID such as common bad habits of mind and common forms

of bad reasoning Critical Thinkers Avoid Egocentric and Sociocentric Bias: 1) Critical thinkers DO NOT use egocentric bias in place of good reason. Examples of egocentric bias: It is true because.... I believe it. It is true because I want to believe it/it is in my interest to believe it.

2) Critical thinkers DO NOT use sociocentric bias in place of a universal, crosscultural, fair-minded perspective. Sociocentric bias occurs when people uncritically accept certain beliefs and prejudices because that is the authoritative or dominant view of their

social group (religion, nation, etc..). Step Five: Teach analytic skills and standards of good reasoning as well * From pamphlets from The Foundation for Critical Thinking

Two exercises to use to enhance analytic skills and standards of reasoning from The Foundation for Critical Thinking: Exercise One: teach how to test thought for intellectual rigor: 1. Is what is being

claimed clear, precise, relevant and accurate? 2. Is it logical and comprehensive? 3. Does it convey enough depth and breadth for the issue at hand? 4. Is it fair-minded and significant?

Exercise Two: Teach how to analyze elements of reasoning including point of view, assumptions, information it presents, problems it tries to resolve, inferences, purpose, concepts, implications and consequences More Exercises to Increase

Critical Thinking: 1) Use Socratic Questioning about Concepts to Continually Engage the Students in Thinking about Course Material 2)Encourage and Reward Intellectual Virtues a) Curiosity

b) Fair-mindedness c) Logical Skills d) Empathy e) Subtlety in Reasoning f) Cleverness g) Perseverance h) Good Judgment i) Objectivity 3) Give assignments that

are graded purely on content of thought argument b) what logical terms imply about claims i. categorical terms (all, no, some) ii. sentential logic terms (ifthen, not, and, or, if and only if)

c) teach them the difference between induction and deduction and standards for good arguments Weblinks for additional resources for critical thinking: 1) Common fallacies on 2) teachingphilosophy's channel on youtube:

a) on fallacies M&list=PLFGHE1xQFhhxVI2LmT2yhT_huBZQqsXUA&index=2 b) on what critical thinking is 3) The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers free sources for the student and educators to explore 4) Hong Kong University's opencourseware on

critical thinking

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Bottom-Up Parsing

    Bottom-Up Parsing

    Bottom-Up Parsing David Woolbright ... replace the handle on the top of the parse stack with its corresponding LHS Shift: move the next token to the top of the parse stack LR Parsers Advantages of LR parsers: Work for most...
  • Neonatal and Perinatal Trials: 30 years in 10

    Neonatal and Perinatal Trials: 30 years in 10

    A pioneering collaboration with parents. A cluster RCT in 1,786 mother-infant pairs in 26 NICUs in Canada, Australia and NZ, showed that training parents as primary caregivers at the cotsideimproved infant weight gain, decreased parent stress and anxiety, and increased...
  • Lecture 18: 8- Phylum: Chordata The phylum of

    Lecture 18: 8- Phylum: Chordata The phylum of

    The subphylum of vertebrata includes seven classes: 1- Class: Cyclostomataدائرية الفم (اللافكيات) 2- Class: Chondrichthyesالأسماك الغضروفية 3- Class: Osteichthyesالأسماك العظمية 4- Class: Amphibia البرمائيات 5- Class: Reptilia الزواحف 6- Class: Aves الطيور 7- Class ...
  • A: Is this your wallet? B: No, it

    A: Is this your wallet? B: No, it

    Answer the questions Is this Laura's blackboard? Is this Molly and Paul's dog? Yes, it is. It's her blackboard. Yes, it is. It's their dog. Answer the questions Is this Ann's Umbrella? Is this Mary and Susan's computer? Yes, it...

    clinical handover requires acceptance of tasks by the incoming team effective leadership makes handover much more efficient and ensures safety by reducing the risk of content omission 3. QUALITY - Right to quality service clinical handover should be aligned with...
  • Introduction - Grotto Networking

    Introduction - Grotto Networking

    Interested in call dropping and blocking statistics. Example III. Classic Telephone Trunk. Number of servers is the number of TDM timeslots on a link, e.g., for "T1" ?=24, for "E1" ?=32. Inter-arrival times are exponentially distributed.
  • From Classical to Contemporary

    From Classical to Contemporary

    Title: From Classical to Contemporary Author: Lisa K. Perdigao Last modified by: lperdiga Created Date: 5/16/2006 1:26:44 PM Document presentation format
  • Chapter


    Meiosis vs. Mitosis. Meiosis and mitosis are both preceded by one round of DNA replication; however, meiosis includes two nuclear divisions. The four daughter cells resulting from meiosis are haploid and genetically distinct. The two daughter cells resulting from mitosis...