Pictures of the Day Ctenophores from Ernst Haeckles
Pictures of the Day Ctenophores from Ernst Haeckles Art forms of Nature Iridescense Bioluminescence tenophora and Speculations About the Ctenophora Basal Metazoa (Urmetazoa) (see Ch 7 and Ch 4 pp 87-88)
I. Ctenophora characteristics II. Current views About Phylogeny Sea Walnut Mnemiopsis leidyi Fineartamerica.com Voracious planktivores Ecological Importance of Ctenophores: The Black & Caspian
Sea Stories -- deterioration of the Black Sea due to eutrophication and fisheries (bonito, mackarel, dorado); In 1989 Mnemiopsis causes crash of anchovy fishery -- 1997 predatory Ctenophore Beroe invades the Black sea and begins to control Mnemiopsis . -- 1999 Mnemiopsis in the Caspian Sea threatens kilka fishery;Irans landings down to 15000 tons, an 82 % decrease by 2004.
-- Has since spread to North Sea and Baltic Sea, though no one can explain how. Spread of Mnemiopsis leidyi in European seas http://www.ilvo.vlaanderen.be/memo Phylum Ctenophora Normally aligned with Phylum Cnidaria on the basis of body plan, life style
but clearly a valid distinct phylum Characteristics of Ctenophora Cnidaria Like Unique to Ctenophora Gelatinous, planktonic Muscles* from cells in mesoglea; Epithelia, mesoglea widely believed to be
Mouth, pharynx, G-V canals mesoderm No circulatory, excretory systems Biradial symmetry Nerve net present Locomotion by comb rows 2 digestive canals open to the outside by anal pores more on this The Presence of a Functionally Tripartite Through-Gut in Ctenophora Has Implications for Metazoan
Character Trait Evolution (2016) Did a complete digestive system evolve independently in the Ctenophores and in Bilateria? Advanced characters in Ctenophora (compared to sponges) 1. Through-gut 2.
3. 4. Jason S. Presnell, Lauren E. Vandepas, Kaitlyn J. Warren, Billie J. Swalla, Chris T. Amemiya, William E. Browne null, Volume 26, Issue 20, 2016, 28142820 The Presence of a Functionally Tripartite Through-Gut in Ctenophora Has Implications for Metazoan Character Trait Evolution (2016)
Did a complete digestive system evolve independently in the Ctenophores and in Bilateria? Advanced characters in Ctenophora (compared to sponges) 1. Through-gut 2.Nervous system 3. Muscles 4. Epithelia
Jason S. Presnell, Lauren E. Vandepas, Kaitlyn J. Warren, Billie J. Swalla, Chris T. Amemiya, William E. Browne null, Volume 26, Issue 20, 2016, 28142820 Other important differences: A few exceptional bottom-dwelling spp but no polyp pha Polymorphism unknown in Ctenophores No Ctenophores are colonial Colloblast (lasso) cells for feeding
Gastrulation by epiboly or by invagination whereas cnidarians gastrulate by delamination primarily Swimming by comb rows under control of apical organ Sense Organs (statolith etc.) and other apical structures in Ctenophores (figure 7.2). The ciliary grooves are agents of nerve impulse conduction. A nervous system; also consists of a nerve net Pole plates also believed to be sensory in nature Are Ctenophores or Sponges
the oldest animals? Oldest known fossils are sponges (600 mya) Cholesterol traces of sponges 650 mya Link between choanoflagellates and sponges Ctenophores have mesoderm, nerves, through- gut & Epithelia But fronds present in the preCambrian were Ctenophores and ctenophores are also ancient. - Ctenophores are the sister group of all other animals - Genes for mesodermal cells present but lack other animal mesodermal gene components- may be
independently evolved Joseph F. Ryan et al Independent origins of a nervous system Through gut x
x x Through gut Note also independent origin of mesoderm and of a thru digestive Leonid Moroz has found that :
classical neurotransmitter pathways are absent in Ctenophores; serotonin, dopamine, adrenalineall absent is consistent with the idea that the Ctenophore neural system evolved
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