The Cold War as Total (Virtual) War: Prospect of Nuclear War The Post-World War Two Condition for Almost Fifty Years The Cold War as Total (Virtual) War: Prospect of Nuclear War Main Nuclear Weapon (NW) effects Blast (supersonic shock wave) Overpressure and extremely high-speed winds Thermal (extremely high temperatures) Non-ionizing radiation (Infrared and Visible)
Prompt ionizing radiation (from the bombs nuclear reactions) Delayed radiation (fallout from the radioactive fission fragments) Other special effects EMP, ionospheric changes, Nuclear Strategies of the United States and the Soviet Union Mutual Assured Destruction: Deter an attack by threatening to destroy the
state, regime, civil society, and population of the adversary Small but invulnerable nuclear armed forces are required capable of surviving an adversarys first-strike nuclear attack and retaliating against civilian targets. US/USSR: Each Pursues a Counterforce Strategy Objective: Eliminate the nuclear forces of the adversaries Why? 1) Attempt to limit damage of an
adversarys nuclear forces by destroying them; Clausewitz goes nuclear 2) Reinforce deterrence 3) Protect allies by demonstrating a will to use or threaten nuclear weapons and war Balance of Nuclear US/SU Nuclear Forces: 1990 United States
Soviet Union 1903 launchers (air, sea, ground) 2,500 launchers (air and ground) 12,477 strategic warheads
10,271 strategic warheads Failure of Arms Control to Limit Nuclear Forces SALT I: Failure to limit the number of launchers START: Failure to limit warheads and Multiple Independently Targeting Vehicles (MIRVs) European Theatre Nuclearized
US and NATO Forces deploy thousands of so-called tactical nuclear weapons which are in the kiloton range (Hiroshima bomb) The Soviet Union and satellites states in Europe equally position short and longrange nuclear missiles and nuclear weapons in Europe The Cold War Extends to the Globe The United States signs over 40 collective security treaties to balance Soviet alliances around the world The United States and the Soviet Union become the
worlds largest suppliers of arms to states around the globe The US sustains the nuclear forces of Britain France and Israel, allies of the US, develop their own nuclear forces with some unofficial assistance from the United States Then Why Did the Cold War End without a World Nuclear War? Political crisis within the Soviet alliance system and within the domestic order of the Soviet Union External crisis: Nationalism of Soviet satellites no
longer can be contained Internal crisis; Russian nationalism rejects Soviet imperial system as too costly Soviet federal system collapses into independent national states Crisis of National Conflicts Deepened by Economic Crisis The economic and technological growth of the Western liberal states vastly exceeds the increasingly slow economic and technological
development of the Soviet Union and Communist centralized economies Western capitalist markets foster growth and technological progress more effectively and efficiently, with less corruption, than centralized economic systems The Limits of Total War and Military Force The formidable Soviet army disintegrated Nationalism triumphs over military force which is unable to contain this political force
The economic burden of the vast Soviet military system and the inefficiencies of a centralized economic system contribute to the defeat of the Soviet Union in the Cold War In December, 1991, the Soviet Union is dissolved as a state and implodes into 15 independent nation-states The former satellites of the Soviet Union in the Warsaw pact also regain their national independence The West and East Germany are integrated into the Federal Republic of Germany Theoretical and Policy Implications of the Cold War
Empires -- that is -- rule of populations by foreign military forces have all failed The tendency toward total or pure war continues Nuclear proliferation increases: North Korea, Iran joining India, Pakistan, and Israel Terrorism has also emerged as a global challenge Part I: Classes 7-11 Will Outline Alternative Theories to Explain Security
Realism and Neo-Realism Classical (market) Liberalism Institutional Liberalism Marxism and class conflicts arising from the unequal distribution of wealth and power as a consequence of global markets.
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