Lecture 1 An Introduction to Networking Chapter 1,

Lecture 1 An Introduction to Networking Chapter 1,

Lecture 1 An Introduction to Networking Chapter 1, pages 1-22 Sources: 1) Dean (2012), Network+ Guide to Networks, 6th Edition (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Lecture Overview Brief introduction to networking Network Services LAN versus WAN Types of architectures (c) AALOSAIMI 2016

Network Definition Set of technologies that connects computers to allow communication and collaboration between users. A group of two or more computer systems linked together to exchange data. Any device connect to the network referred to as a node. Any device has a unique logical address (name). Any device also has a unique physical address (MAC). A node need NIC to connect to network. (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking:

Advantages: Reduce hardware costs. Sharing application. Sharing information resources. Centralized data management. Connecting people. Disadvantages: Loss of autonomy. Lack of privacy. Security Threats. Loss of productivity. (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 3 General Categories of

Networks We are focusing on the first one: 1) Local Area Network (LAN) 2) Wide Area Network (WAN) 3) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 LAN versus WAN A LAN is a group of computers located in a relatively small geographical area (like a building or group of buildings) Typically owned by a single organization

A WAN is used to connect host computers and sites (including other LANs) across a wide geographic area Collective, distributed ownership consisting of multiple organizations (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Local Area Network PC PC

PC Switch PC ? (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Printer Architecture Networked computers interact with each other

in different ways Computers may have different roles on a network We refer to the ways in which computers interact with one another on the network and the organizational relationship between the computers as the Logical Architecture (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Topology versus Architecture Architecture - specifies how functions are laid out between the various devices on the network

which is independent of the networking technologies being used How do the devices on the network interact? Is there a designated server? What is the servers responsibility? What is the clients responsibility? Topology the physical arrangement of the devices on the network which is affected by the networking technologies being used (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Architecture

3 primary logical architectures (the book just refers to these as types of networks) Host-based 1. Traditional mainframe / central computer model Client-based / Peer-to-Peer 2.

Historically most home-based and many small office networks Client-server 3. Microsoft model or what we commonly see today Fairly powerful clients interacting with some number of servers

Model used on campus (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Protocols For a modern data/communications network to function in a way that most organizations consider to be acceptable: All devices on the network MUST be able to understand each other regardless of the hardware, manufacturer, system software, and applications being used

(c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Protocols Protocol set of rules used to communicate Devices use MANY protocols even during simple data exchanges Protocols provide format, structure, and meaning to messages Protocols specify how communication occurs and the form it takes (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Protocols and standards

Protocols are typically based on public standards developed by an independent committee - not on standards developed by a single manufacturer What are standards and why are they important in networking (or for technology use in general)? (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 LAN Architecture Topologies Transmission medium

Layout Medium access control (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 LAN topologies Physical topology : the way in which a network is laid out physically. The actual layout of the wire or media. Two or more devices connect to a link; two or more links form a topology. Logical topology: Defines how the hosts access the media to send data. Shows the flow of data on a network.

Broadcast Token passing (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Transmission medium - Wired LAN Network Cables Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic Cable Ethernet: the most popular cabling technology in LAN. Ethernet uses

a protocol called CSMA/CD Twisted Pair cable (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Fiber Optic cable Coaxial cable Rj-45 connector Transmission medium - Wireless LANs Wi-Fi: wireless LAN standard that offers Ethernet speeds through the use

of radio waves instead of wires. Wifi standards and speeds Standard Max Speed Typical Range 802.11a 54 Mbps 150 feet

802.11b 11 Mbps 300 feet 802.11g 54 Mbps 300 feet 802.11n 100 Mbps

300+ feet (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 Access Methodology CSMA/CD CSMA/CA Token Passing (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 standards organization is any organization whose primary

activities are developing, coordinating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of some relatively wide base of affected adopters. Most standards are voluntary in the sense that they are offered for adoption by people or industry without being mandated in law. Some standards (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 become mandatory when they are

Standards fall into two categories: De facto (Latin for from the fact): those standards that have just happened, without any formal plan (e.g., IBM PC, Unix) De jure (Latin for by law): formal, legal standards adopted by some authorization body (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 International organization for standardization - ISO is the worlds largest developer of voluntary International Standards.

International Standards give state of the art specifications for products, services and good practice, helping to make industry more efficient and effective. Developed through global consensus, they help to break down barriers to international trade. (c) AALOSAIMI 2016 ITU- Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T The ITU is a specialized United Nations agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV

frequencies, satellite and telephony specifications, networking infrastructure, and tariffs applied to global communications. It also provides developing countries with technical expertise and equipment to advance those nations technological bases. 23 American national standards institute - ANSI the Institute is private, non-profitable membership organization supported by a

diverse constituency of private and public sector organizations. ANSI has maintained as its primary goal the enhancement of global competitiveness of U.S. business and the American quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems and promoting their integrity. 24 These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use

the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards ASCII code for encoding English alphabets 25 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - IEEE Pronounced as: I-Triple-E. The IEEE is an international society

composed of engineering professionals. Its goals are to promote development and education in the electrical engineering and computer science fields. IEEE 802 standards for networks 26 Electronic Industrial Association EIA EIA is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States. EIA began as the Radio Manufacturers

Association (RMA) in 1924; over time it evolved to include manufacturers of televisions, semiconductors, computers and networking devices. EIA/TIA-232 27 the European telecommunications standards institute Independent, Non-profitable institution. Consists of telecommunication , producing companies, users , organizations, equipment makers and network operators

to develop and produce systems and telecommunication standards in Europe . 28 Other organizations Asynchronous Transfer Mode : ATM Forum International, non-profitable companies concerned in ATM switches used in WAN and fast LAN. Specifications and standards for those switches.

29 Recourses Dave Novak , Introduction to Networking ,School of Business Administration , University of Vermont Rehab AlFallaj , lecture notes http://www.idc-online.com/technical_referen ces/pdfs/data_communications/PhysicalTop ology_and_Logical_Topology.pdf (c) AALOSAIMI 2016

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