Foundations of Multinational Financial Management Alan Shapiro John
Foundations of Multinational Financial Management Alan Shapiro John Wiley & Sons Power Points by Joseph F. Greco, Ph.D. California State University, Fullerton 1 International Financing and International Financial Markets
Chapter 12 2 I. CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS I. CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS A. 3 General Sources of Funds: 1. Internally-generated cash 2. Short-term external funds 3.
Long-term external funds B. Forms of Securities 1. Equity 2. Debt: the most preferred form 3 CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS C. Debt Instruments Used 1. Commercial Bank Loans
2. Bonds a. Publicly issued b. Privately issued 4 CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS D. Financial Markets v. Financial Intermediaries 1. Securitization a. Definition: replacing bank loans with
securities issued in public markets. 5 CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS b. Reflects reduction in access costs due to 1.) Technological improvements
2.) Globalization 6 CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS E. Corporate Governance differences exist and fall into two general categories: 1. Anglo-Saxon (AS) Model 2.
and Model Continental European Japanese (CEJ) 7 CORPORATE SOURCES AND USES OF FUNDS F. Globalization of Financial Markets -has led to 1. Global center competition
2. Regulatory arbitrage 8 II. NATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET AS INTERNATIONAL A. PrincipalCENTERS Functions of Financial Centers -between savers and borrowers 1. To transfer purchasing
power 2. To allocate funds 9 NATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET AS INTERNATIONAL CENTERS B. International Financial Market 1. Development of most important: a.
London b. New York c. Tokyo 2. Other Centers for Intermediaries a. Singapore b. Hong Kong c. the Bahamas 10
NATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET AS INTERNATIONAL CENTERS 3. Prerequisites to be a financial center a. political stability b. minimal government interventions c. legal infrastructure d. financial infrastructure
11 NATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET AS INTERNATIONAL CENTERS C.Foreign Access to Domestic Markets 1. The Foreign Bond Market a. Extension of domestic market b. Issues floated by foreign cos. or governments c. Examples:
yankee bonds, samurai bonds 12 NATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET AS INTERNATIONAL CENTERS c. Three Major Types of Foreign Bonds 1.) Fixed rate 2.) Floating rate 3.) Equity related
13 NATIONAL CAPITAL MARKET AS INTERNATIONAL CENTERS 2. The Foreign Bank Market a. Extension of domestic markets b. Important funding source: Japanese banks for U.S. firms 3. The Foreign Equity Market a. Cross listing internationally can 1.) diversify risk
2.) increase potential demand 3.) build base of global owners. 14 III. THE EUROMARKETS D. Downside of Global Financial Markets -abrupt shifts in capital flows II.THE EUROMARKETS -the most important international financial markets today. A. The Eurocurrency Market 1. Composed of eurobanks who accept/ maintain deposits of foreign currency
2. Dominant currency: US$ 15 THE EUROMARKETS B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Growth of Eurodollar Market
caused by restrictive US government policies, especially Reserve requirements on deposits Special charges and taxes Required concessionary loan rates Interest rate ceilings Rules which restrict bank competition. 16 THE EUROMARKETS C.Eurodollar Creation involves 1. A chain of deposits 2. Changing control/usage of deposit
3. Eurocurrency loans a. Use London Interbank Offer Rate: LIBOR as basic rate b. Six month rollovers c. Risk indicator: size of margin between cost and rate charged. 17 THE EUROMARKETS 4. Multi-currency Clauses a. Clause gives borrowers option to
switch currency of loan at rollover. b. Reduces exchange rate risk 5. Domestic vs. Eurocurrency Markets a. Closely linked rates by arbitrage b. Euro rates: tend to lower lending, higher deposit 18 THE EUROMARKETS D. Eurobonds bonds sold outside the country of currency denomination.
1. Recent Substantial Market Growth -due to use of swaps. a financial instrument which gives 2 parties the right to exchange streams of income over time. 19 THE EUROMARKETS 2. Links to Domestic Bond Markets arbitrage has eliminated interest rate differential. 3. Placement
underwritten by syndicates of banks 20 THE EUROMARKETS 4. Currency Denomination a. Most often US$ b. Cocktails allow a basket of currencies 5. Eurobond Secondary Market -result of rising investor demand 6. Retirement a. sinking fund usually
b. some carry call provisions. 21 THE EUROMARKETS 7. Ratings a. According to relative risk b. Rating Agencies Moodys, Standard & Poor 8. Rationale For Market Existence a. Eurobonds avoid government regulation b. May fade as market deregulate 22
THE EUROMARKETS E. Eurobond vs. Eurocurrency Loans 1. Five Differences a. Eurocurrency loans use variable rates b. Loans have shorter maturities c. Bonds have greater volume d. Loans have greater flexibility e. Loans obtained faster 23 THE EUROMARKETS
F. Note Issuance Facility (NIF) 1. Low-cost substitute for loan 2. Allows borrowers to issue own notes 3. Placed/distributed by banks G. NIFs vs. Eurobonds 1. Differences: a. Notes draw down credit as needed b. Notes let owners determine timing c. Notes must be held to maturity 24 THE EUROMARKETS 5. Euronotes and Euro-Commercial Paper
a. Euronotes unsecured short-term debt securities denominated in US$ and issued by corporations and governments. b. Euro-commercial paper(CP) euronotes not bank underwritten 25 THE EUROMARKETS c.
U.S. vs. Euro-CPs 1.) Average maturity longer (2x) 2.) 3.) for Euro-CPs Secondary market for Euro; not U.S. CPs. Smaller fraction of Euro use credit rating services to
rate. 26 V. DEVELOPMENT BANKS A. General Purpose founded by governments to help finance very large infrastructure projects. 27 DEVELOPMENT BANKS B. Types of Development Banks
1. World Bank Group includes a. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development b. International Development Association c. International Finance Corporation 28 DEVELOPMENT BANKS B. Types of Development Banks (cont) 2. Regional Development Banks
finance industry, agricultural, and infrastructure projects 3. National Development Banks concentrate on a particular industry or region. 29
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