Diversity and how it is produced 1. Naming

Diversity and how it is produced 1. Naming

Diversity and how it is produced 1. Naming organisms and its scientific basis 2. Evolution of plant Phyla in relation to geological time 3. Selection 1. Naming organisms and its scientific basis Linnaeus and binomial classification Cladistic analysis The hierarchical naming system Linnaeus and binomial classification

Carl Linnaeus 1707-1778 Carl Linnaeus 1707-1778 Swedish naturalist and explorer Binomial classification of species using Latin names. Based on sexual characteristics Catnip was known as 'Nepeta floribus interrupte spicatis pedunculatis' Linnaeus abbreviated it to 'Nepeta cataria' literally, pertaining to cats.

Use of type specimens Latin descriptions Authorities: Nepta cataria L. http://www.nrm.se/fbo/hist/linnaeus/linnaeus.html.en Cladistic analysis In-group and out-group Primitive characters Derived characters Parsimony Use of molecular methods Fig. 15.13A

The hierarchical naming system CATEGORY Domain Domestic cat Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum

Chordata (Subphylum) Vertebrata Class Mamalia Order

Carnivora Family Felidae Genus Felis Species catus

Page 306 Fig 15.10 2. Evolution of plant Phyla in relation to geological time A. The pattern of plant evolution B. Major events in geological time C. Continental drift D. Major extinctions and the trend in numbers of families E. Plant-environment interaction F. Atmospheric CO2 concentration and evolution

G. Environmental influences at the Triassic-Jurassic extinction Background points of interest Over the last 450 million years (Phanerzoic Period) fossil evidence indicates that about 90% of land species have become extinct The average life of a fossil flowering plant species is about 3.5 million years A. The pattern of plant evolution Fig 17.3A

Approximate numbers of plant species Nonvascular plants (Bryophytes) Mosses Liverworts Vascular plants Seedless plants Lycophytes Horsetails Ferns 12,000 6,500

1,000 15 12,000 Seed plants Gymnosperms Conifers Cycads Ginko 550 100

1 Angiosperms Anthophyta 250,000 TOTAL = 282,350 app B. Major events in geological time

Geological time scale C. Continental drift Cretaceous extinctions Permian extinctions Fig 15.3B Continental drift

Fig 15.3A The rise in the number of families D. Major extinctions and the trend in numbers of families The environment influences plants

Temperature Radiation Water Soil CO 2 E. Plant-environment interaction Plants influence the environment The environment influences plants

Temperature Radiation Modulates Reflects Water Circulates Soil Forms

CO 2 Reduces Plants influence the environment Plants influence the environment On geological time scales: On geological time scales: Dynamics of the carbon cycle are dominated by

weathering and deposition of organic carbon stored in rocks, e.g., limestone containing calcium carbonate Increasing root penetration into soil, incorporation of organic matter in soil, and recycling of transpired water as precipitation all lead to increased weathering and a reduction in atmospheric CO 2 Deposition of layers of organic matter that become fossil fuels Cretaceous extinctions

Permian extinctions Carbon dioxide through geological time G. Environmental influences at the Triassic-Jurassic extinction Major periods of plant and animal extinctions rarely overlap The Triassic

Jurassic extinction was the third largest in geological time Major extinctions of marine and terrestrial animals and changes, but not large numbers of extinctions in plants Very large reduction in leaf size during the late Triassic Indicates an increase in temperature? Triassic Jurassic The late Triassic

Parallel reductions in stomatal density suggest increase in CO2 concentration. Estimated doubling of CO2 and 4oC temp increase CO2 came from volcanic activity due to the break up of Pangea? Three conclusions and a question about evolution of plant Phyla in relation to geological time Three conclusions and a question about evolution The environment has shown marked changes over geological time Geological processes and plants have interacted to produce some of these changes

Major plant phyla have evolved at distinct times in the earths history How have some plant types persisted despite environmental changes? Tomorrows lecture!! Sections you need to have read 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.10 15.11 17.2 17.3 Courses that deal with this topic Biology 102 General Biology GEOL 101 Introduction to Geological Sciences

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