he ptimus Signature Boutique Offices , India AE

he ptimus Signature Boutique Offices , India AE

he ptimus Signature Boutique Offices , India AE Senior Thesis 2013 Punit G. Das | Structural Option Faculty Advisor: Dr. Linda Hanagan Location and Site Map Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Office + Parking garage + Retail Ground + 17 floors 430,000 sq. ft. Max height: 230 ft. January 2012 October 2013 a i n

S t r e e t Building Information M The Optimus | India Building Information The Optimus | India Project Team Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion

Owner + Project Manager + General Contractor: Lodha Group Architect: Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, New York Local Architect: Edifice Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Structural Engineer: Leslie E. Robertson Associates MEP Consultant: Spectral Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Lighting Designer: George Sexton Associates The Optimus | India Building Architecture Information Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement

Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Open Floor Plan South facing offices for panoramic views Balconies on every floor Faade: Glass + Aluminum + Stone, designed for Roof garden + Cafeteria + Gymnasium Balcony South facing offices The Optimus | India Existing Gravity System Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion

Open floor plan: Perimeter columns + 1 row of interior columns 8 flat slabs with additional 8 drop panels 3x1.5 to 3x7 rectangular columns for parking space 1.5 to 3 diameter circular columns in office spaces Building faade supported at cantilevered slab edges Concrete strength range from 5000 psi to 7000 psi The Optimus | India Existing Lateral System Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Reinforced concrete shear walls ranging from 12 to

20 8 ft. to 25ft. walls in North-South direction and 47 ft. wall in East-West direction Shear walls wrap the elevator shaft and stairwells Due to proximity to the Arabian sea, wind loads control the lateral system Facades Shear wall layout The Optimus | India Concrete in India Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Concrete is a most prevalent building material Mumbai is called Concrete Jungle Clients perception that concrete is cheap

Cheap labor Cheap design consultation Concrete design is comfort zone of most architects Mumbai Facades and engineers Image Courtesy of www.skyscrapercity.com Lack of steel construction firms The Optimus | India Problems with concrete Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Environmental impact

Hard to maintain quality control in India Cheap labor can sometimes be harmful. Member sizes get huge with taller buildings Future challenges require alternate materials Building collapse in Mumbai Facades Image Courtesy of The Hindu Newspaper The Optimus | India Solution Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Thesis Preview Analyze and design of gravity members Explore benefits of Steel design

Analyze and design lateral system Requires less but skilled labor Typical steel-connection design Quality control easier Facades Cost-benefit analysis Taller building can have smaller members Integration and optimization with architecture Reduced weight of overall structure Integration and optimization of facade The Optimus | India New Gravity system Building Information

Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution New Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Interior gravity columns - Steel wide-flange columns Structural floor plan Parking floor plan encased with reinforced concrete Edge columns W14 and W12 Steel wide flange Superimposed dead Loads used from existing system Critical design load combination - 1.2Dead +1.6Live+0.5Roof Live (ASCE 7-10) Facades Office floor plan The Optimus | India

New Gravity system Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Following AISC Manual Chapter I Columns mainly checked for compression, minimum New Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion size of steel core and critical elastic bucking Composite columns caused 40% reduction in column size in parking spaces compared to existing system Facades The Optimus | India Integration to architecture

Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution New Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Typical office floor plan Small columns can be integrated easily in the space Optimized open floor plan Increased floor space in office and parking Utility areas Stairwell Less obstruction of interior columns to daylight Concrete encasing has fire-proofing advantage

Facades Restrooms Elevator shafts Office Space Typical office floor plan Stairwell The Optimus | India Composite Floor System Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution New Gravity System Architecture Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion C o m p o s i te sy ste m c ro s s - s e c ti o n

For typical office floor W14x30 beam and W18x46 girder with 1.5VLI20 Vulcraft deck used Steel deck runs perpendicular to beam and parallel to girder 1.2Dead + 1.6Live load combination used AISC Manual table 3.21 and 3.20 used to design a partially composite section Facades The Optimus | India Building Lateral Information system Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Architecture 2 Moment frames in North-south direction

2 Braced frames in North-South direction 2 Braced frames in East-West direction All columns are steel wide flange W12 encased in Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion reinforced concrete. Size range 34 to 24 All columns designed for compression created due to lateral loads Facades The Optimus | India Building Lateral Information system Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system

Architecture Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Drifts (inches) ASCE 7-10 Directional procedure used to calculate wind loads and drifts ASCE 7-10 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure and Modal Response Spectrum Analysis used The two seismic analysis procedures compared based on drifts and base shears Facades The Optimus | India Building Lateral Information system Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System

Composite Floor system Architecture Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Story Drifts (inches) Critical seismic loads compared to critical wind load based on drifts Design controlled by drifts and base shears due to Wind loads Facades The Optimus | India Integration to Architecture Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Moving braces to exterior creates more open space

Exposing HSS braces as architectural elements Moving braces help improve parking space Architecture Facades Lateral System h rs o t va Ele Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion aft d ve o m Elevator shaft moved around braces to create more parking space Parking Floor plan The Optimus | India Connection Design

Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Architecture Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Moment frame Facades The Optimus | India Effect on foundations Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Architecture Effect on foundations Conclusion

Existing building has 50 to 80 thick MAT foundation Dead load on foundation reduced from 25000 kip to 23000 kip Facades The Optimus | India Acknowledgements Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Architecture Conclusion Family and friends

Engineers at Leslie E. Robertson Associates (New York and Mumbai offices) Pei Cobb Free & Partners Architects Lodha Group The AE faculty Facades The Optimus | India Conclusion Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Architecture Conclusion

Every structural change follows architectural integration Adding steel building to skyline of Mumbai can improve citys image of concrete jungle Composite columns can be of great structural and architectural advantage to tall structures Cost benefit analysis resulted in higher price of steel structure However, increased floor space area, faster construction and reduced labor can cover up the extra cost of steel structure Facades The Optimus | India Steel structural system Concrete structural system Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement

Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Architecture Facades The Optimus | India Appendix Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Architecture Facades The Optimus | India Appendix

Building Information Existing structural system Thesis Statement Thesis Solution Gravity System Composite Floor system Lateral System Moment Connection Design Effect on foundations Conclusion Architecture Facades R1 R2 R3 R4

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