# Microeconomics Course E John Hey Welcome! Professoressa Maria

Microeconomics Course E John Hey Welcome!

Professoressa Maria Covadonga de la Iglesia Villasol, Departamento de Fundamentos del Anlisis Econmico I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Is here through Erasmus to share ideas on

teaching. This week The final week of the course. Today, Tuesday: Duopoly. Tomorrow, Wednesday: Example 1 of the

exams. Thursday: Example 2 of the exams. Before tomorrow, try Example 1 and before Thursday, try Example 2. It is a waste of your time coming to the lectures if you have not done so.

Game Theory In Chapter 29 we talked about games, in which two players have to choose simultaneously the value of some decision variables, the values of which affect both

players. We introduced the idea of a Nash Equilibrium in which each is optimising given the decision of the other. Today we will apply that in Duopoly.

Chapter 31 Duopoly A market in which there are two sellers two firms Firm 1 and Firm 2, selling an identical good. The demand curve in the market

is given by: p = a b(q1 + q2) The Cournot Model Each firm chooses independently its output.

The price is determined by the demand curve. What outputs do the firms choose? Profits

Let us denote the profit of firm 1 by 1. Suppose that the total cost function is given by: C(q1) = cq1. Hence profits are given by: 1.= pq1 - cq1

= [a b(q1 + q2)]q1 - cq1 Isoprofit Curves For firm 1 an isoprofit curve is given by: 1.= constant

Hence [a b(q1 + q2)]q1 - cq1 = constant Reaction Curves If Firm 1 chooses its output to maximise its profits given a level

of output of Firm 2, we get: q1 = (a-c-bq2 )/2b the reaction curve of Firm 1. The Nash Equilibrium is given by the intersection of the

two reaction curves Total output = 2(a-c)/3b With monopoly = (a-c)/2b With perfect competition = (a-c)/b The output with a duopoly is between the monopoly output and the

competitive output. Lets go to Maple... The Bertrand Model Each firm independently chooses its price.

The demand all goes to the firm with the lowest price. What prices will the firms choose? What happens with a duopoly

Is very sensitive to the rules of the game Summary With quantity-setting rules in the Nash Equilibrium the total output with a duopoly is

between the monopoly output and the competitive output. A collusive outcome is better for both firms but is unstable. For a firm it is better to be the leader. With price-setting the Nash Equilibrium has price

equal to marginal cost (and therefore like competition). Chapter 31 Goodbye!

## Recently Viewed Presentations

• 비즈니스 환경 변화 비즈니스 Needs Value Chain의 해체 및 재통합 Globalization (조달, 생산, 분배의 세계화) 기업의 Virual Corporation화 Bussiness Process Outsourcing Knowledge-Based Society 산업간 Boundary의 붕괴 및 융합 Beyond Supply Chain Value Chain Management Win-Win Partnerships 불확실성 및 ...
• Distributive Property:Advanced Problems. It may be necessary to review the basic distributive property problems in the number property introduction PowerPoint presentation. Recall the distributive property of multiplication over addition . . .
• Eculizumab- recombinant, monoclonal C5 antibody approved for diseases associated with dysregulation of complement activation (Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aplastic anemia) Associated with 1000-2000 x of meningococcal disease (Menactra) Several case reports of DGI Infection associated with eculizumab
• Rethinking Grammar Teaching INPUT PROCESSING THE Questions WHEN should I teaching grammar? Every day? At the beginning of the lesson? HOW should I teach grammar? Deductive lesson (rule example) Inductive lesson (example rule) Should I use L1 or L2 to...
• The Government of Mexico Mark Crawford Erika Garcia Timothy Hudson Erika Romero Sarah Stepanski History Porfirio Díaz was elected president in 1877, but was ultimately recognized as a dictator who favored rich land-owners Activists such as Emiliano Zapata, Francisco "Pancho"...
• En el sistema internacional la presión se mide en una unidad derivada que se denomina Pascal (Pa) que es equivalente a una fuerza total de un Newton actuando uniformemente en un metro cuadrado. Luz H. Lasso
• Example1 - Null pointer dereference. malloc() may return null if it fails to allocate a memory (line 12) e.g.) malloc(0) e.g.) malloc(BIG_NUMBER) Introduction to Coverity, CS453 Automated Software Testing. Execution sequence thattriggers the bug.
• "The Masque of the Red Death" ... What is the background/setting Setting during the bubonic plague - 14th and 17th centuries Bubonic plague was an illness carried by fleas who bit rats that traveled on ships The Black Death is...