Passive Distortion Compensation for Package Level Interconnect Chung-Kuan
Passive Distortion Compensation for Package Level Interconnect Chung-Kuan ChengDongsheng Ma & Janet Wa ng UC San Diego Univ. of Arizona 1 Outline 1. Motivation 2. Review of High-Speed Serial Links 3. Passive Distortion Compensation 1. Theory 2. Implementation 3. Simulation Results 4. Power Management and System Integration 5. Research Direction
2 Courtesy of Hamid Hatamkhani et al., DAC 06 y = 10800x 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 10 32 36
68 Normalized unit to 90nm node 1. Motivation: ITRS Bandwidth Projection 78 90 100 1 Abundant on-chip bandwidth Off-chip bandwidth is the bottleneck Many chip are I/O limited 3
2. Review of High-Speed Serial Links Techniques On-Chip Off-Chip Pre-emphasis and equalization Clocked Discharging (M. Horowitz, ISVLSI03)
Frequency Modulation (S. Wong, JSSC 03; Jose ISVLSI 05) CDMA on wireline (Jongsun Kim et al.) Non-linear Transmission Line (E. Hajimiri JSSC05, E.C. Kan CICC 05) Resistive Termination (Tsuchiya et
al., EPEP; M. Flynn ICCAD 05) 4 3. Passive Distortion Compensation Typical RLC Transmission Line Distortionless Transmission Line Frequency dependent phase velocity (speed) and attenuation Intentionally make leakage conductance satisfy R/G=L/C Frequency response becomes flat from DC mode to Giga Hz
5 3.1 Theory: Telegraphers Equations Telegraphers equations Wave Propagation Propagation Constant Characteristic Impedance and correspond to attenuation and phase velocity. Both are frequency dependent in general. 6 3.1 Theory: Distortionless Lines Distortionless transmission line If
Both attenuation and phase velocity become frequency independent 7 3.1 Theory: Differential Case Common Mode Current flowing in the same direction Shunt between each line to ground Differential Mode Current flowing in the opposite direction Shunt between the two lines 8 3.2 Implementation
Evenly add shunt resistors between the signal line and the ground Non-ideality Ideal Assumption In Practice Implication Homogeneous and distributive line Discrete shunts Whats the optimal spacing? Are the shunt resistors realizable?
Frequency independent RLGC Frequency dependent RLGC Whats the optimal frequency for the matching? 9 3.2 Implementation: MCM trace MCM trace vs. On-chip interconnect MCM Length Series Resistance Frequency dependency of line parameters Operation region ~10 cm
mm 1 /mm On-chip ~ 10 1 /m Large Small RLC RC 10 3.2 Implementation: A MCM Stripline Case Control the signal line thickness to minimize skin effect (cost vs. distortion)
Assume LCP dielectric Geometry based on IBM high-end AS/400 system 11 3.3 Simulation: Methodology Transient simulation in Hspice Each transmission line segment is modeled by Welement using frequency-dependent tabular mode l Discrete resistors Used CZ2D tool from IBM for RLGC extraction Part of IBM EIP (Electrical Interconnect & Packagin g) suite. Fast and accurate Ensures causality of transient simulation 12
3.3 Simulation: RLGC vs. Frequency R L C G Z0 = 78 , delay = 57.78 Boost up low frequency traveling speed ps/cm Match at DC Balance low frequency attenuation and high frequency attenuation R1MHz=11.07 /cm, L1MHz=5.52e-3 H/cm, C1MHz =0.74 pF/cm Rshunt =L1MHz/R1MHzC1MHz = 669.5 /cm 13 3.3 Simulation: Shunt Resistor
Spacing Number of shunt resistors = N Resistors are implemented with embedded carbon paste film Spacing depends on the target data rate 14 3.3 Attenuation W8m/t2m/b20m 15 3.3 Phase Velocity W8m/t2m/b20m 16 3.3 Simulation: Pulse Response
DC saturation voltage determined by the resistor ladder less severe ISI effect 17 3.3 Jitter and Eye opening for 2um case W8m/t2m/b20m 10 cm 1 shunt/1 cm 1 Terminated with Z0 20 cm
Terminated with Rd 5.8183 c3 1. Each shunt resistor is 669.5 ohm Open end 22.5 2. Z0=78 ohm 3. For 10cm line, Rdc = 66.9 ohm; for 20 cm line, Rdc=33.5 ohm 18 3.3 Jitter and Eye opening for 4.5um case W8m/t4.5m/b20m 10 cm 20 cm
0.48916 37.327 0.21423 Terminated with Rd 12.026 0.57114 c3 1. Each shunt resistor is 1232 ohm Open end Unrecognizable 2. Z0=71.1 ohm 37.443 0.20064 1 shunt/1 cm
1 Terminated with Z0 2 3. Unrecognizable For 10cm line, Rdc = 123.2 ohm; for 20 cm line, Rdc=61.6 ohm 19 3.3 Simulation: Eye Diagrams W8m/t2m/b20m/L10cm 1000 bit PRBS at 10Gbps W-element + tabular RLGC model in HSpice Without shunt resistors
With 10 shunts (each = 669.5) Clear eye opening Jitter = 22.5 ps Eye opening = 0.51 V Jitter = 5.57 ps Eye opening = 0.426 V 20 Reduced amplitud e 3.3 Best Eye Diagram for 2um thick case W8m/t2m/b20m/L10cm, 10 distributed resistors
Eye opening Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. shunt value Best case when each shunt is 500 ohm Jitter = 4.63 ps Eye opening = 0.35645 V 21 Best eye diagram when only terminator is used, 2um thick case W8m/t2m/b20m/L10cm, terminator only Eye opening
Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. R_term Best case when terminator 90 ohm Jitter = 4.97 ps Eye opening = 0.40647 V 22 W8m/t2m/b20m/L20cm, 20 distributed resistors Eye opening Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. shunt value
Best case when each shunt is 600 ohm Jitter = 9.816 ps Eye opening = 0.08379 V 23 W8m/t2m/b20m/L20cm, terminator only Eye opening Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. R_term Best case when terminator 40 ohm Jitter = 11.95 ps Eye opening = 0.10111 V 24
3.3 Eye Diagram for 4.5um thick case when matched at DC W8m/t4.5m/b20m/L10cm Open ended Sleepy Eye 10 shunts matched at DC Jitter = 22.8 ps eye opening = 0.525 V 25 3.3 Best Eye Diagram for the 4.5um thick case W8m/t4.5m/b20m/L10cm, 10 distributed resistors Eye opening
Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. shunt value Best case when each shunt is 500 ohm Jitter = 11.97 ps Eye opening = 0.44036 V 26 W8m/t4.5m/b20m/L10cm, terminator only Eye opening Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. R_term
Best case when the terminator is 80 ohm Jitter = 7.18 ps Eye opening = 0.51672 V 27 W8m/t4.5m/b20m/L20cm, 20 distributed resistors Eye opening Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. shunt value Best case when each shunt is 800 ohm Jitter = 21.762 ps Eye opening = 0.18288 V 28
W8m/t4.5m/b20m/L20cm, terminator only Eye opening Jitter Jitter & eye opening v.s. R_term Best case when the terminator is 110 ohm Jitter = 37.595 ps Eye opening = 0.24859 V 29 3.3 Eye Diagram for the MCM trace W8m/t4.5m/b20m/L20cm Terminated with Z0 Jitter = 38.834 ps Eye opening = 0.21418
20 shunts matched at DC Jitter = 23.24 ps eye opening = 0.238 V 30 4. Adaptive Power Management (APM) The distortionless signaling simplifies the interface circuitry. However, the twice heavier attenuation due to passive compensation calls for adaptive power management; With adaptive power management, we adaptively regulate the power supply of the transmitter according to attenuation; The regulated supply voltage guarantees the speed of transmission while keeping
the minimal power overhead and wellcontrolled bit-error rate. 31 4. APM Preliminary Results 32 4. APM Controller Propagatoin Replica Core Operations (, , , ) CPU Utilization
Performance Monitor Energy Source Performance Request Intelligent Energy Manager *(IEM) Signal Processing Frequency/Voltage Table Temperature/Voltage Table Adaptive Power Controller (APC) 33 4. System Integration The reduction of the jitter leaves larger design margin for interface circuit design;
To enable an effective and accurate com munication, the operation of transmitter and receiver must be well synchronized. This requires accurate clock positioning a nd phase locking; Synergic method will be taken to achieve mutual compensation and joint leverage on signal accuracy, attenuation and syste m power. 34 5. Research Direction Develop analysis models for the technology Eye diagram analysis via step responses Power consumption Optimize technologies
Chip carrier and board technologies Redistribution Physical dimensions Shunts, terminators Prototype fabrication & measurement More applications: clock trees, buses Incorporate transmitter/receiver design 35 Remark Distortion Compensation: Source termination: Impedance Receiver termination: Voltage Clamp, Matched Z, Optimized Z. Distributed shunts
Combination of above techniques Packaging Current Products: Improve signal quality based on current fabrication technologies. Future Products: Devise the optimal combination. 36 The End Thank you! 37
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