Significant Changes to NFPA 70E Bobby Gray NREL

Significant Changes to NFPA 70E Bobby Gray NREL

Significant Changes to NFPA 70E Bobby Gray NREL EFCOG Electrical Safety Meeting July 15, 2014 Hoydar Buck, Inc Global Changes 2 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E Harm injury Probability or damage to health Likelihood Global Change Annex F: Provides clarity and accuracy. 3 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E

Work Footwear shoes Pictures used by permission of Salisbury Global Change Document: Provides accuracy and harmonizes term with ASTM standards. 4 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E Arc Arc flash hazard analysis Shock hazard analysis Electrical hazard analysis Hazard identification and risk assessment

flash risk assessment Shock risk assessment Electrical hazard risk assessment Risk assessment Global Change Document: Provides accuracy and harmonizes term with other standards addressing risk and hazards. 5 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E Hazard Arc Risk Category flash PPE category Eliminates term from HRC standard Global Change Document: Provides accuracy and harmonizes term with other standards addressing risk and hazards. The common practice of referring to HRC numbers as

Categories will now accurately reflect the PPE category from Table 130.7(C)(16). 6 PPE Categories 7 Article 90 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E (A) Covered. This Covered. This standard addresses standard addresses electrical safety-related electrical safetywork practices, safetyrelated work practices related maintenance requirements, and other for employee administrative controls for workplaces that are employee workplaces that necessary for the are necessary for the practical safeguarding practical safeguarding of of employees employees 90.2(A) Change that shows 70E covers more than just work practices in keeping workers

safe (A) 9 2012 NFPA 70E (2) Installations used by the electric utility, such as office buildings, warehouses, garages, machine shops, and recreational buildings that are not an integral part of a generating plant, substation, or control center 2015 NFPA 70E (2) Installations used by the electric utility, such as office buildings, warehouses, garages, machine shops, and recreational buildings that are not an integral part of a generating plant, substation, or control center Note: This standard addresses safety of workers whose job responsibilities entail interaction with electrical equipment and systems with potential exposure to energized electrical equipment and circuit parts. Concepts in this standard are often adapted to other workers whose exposure to electrical hazards is unintentional or not recognized as part of their job responsibilities. The highest risk for injury from electrical hazards for other workers involve unintentional contact with overhead power lines and electric shock from machines, tools, and appliances.

90.2(A)(2): New Note explains why work on other parts of utility system requires application of NFPA 70E. 10 2012 NFPA 70E (2) Installations underground in mines and self-propelled mobile surface mining machinery and its attendant electrical trailing cable 2015 NFPA 70E (2) Installations underground in mines and self-propelled mobile surface mining machinery and its attendant electrical trailing cable 90.2(B)(2): Promotes the use of NFPA 70E by the Mine Safety and Health Administration since it has informally endorsed the application of NFPA 70E as Arc Flash Accident Prevention Best Practice. 11 2012 NFPA 70E

Chapter 1 applies generally for safetyrelated work practices; Chapter 3 supplements or modifies Chapter 1 with safety requirements for special equipment. Chapter 2 2015 NFPA 70E Chapter 1 applies generally for safety-related workpractice; Chapter 2 applies to safety-related maintenance requirements for electrical equipment and installations in workplaces; and Chapter 3 supplements or modifies Chapter 1 with safety requirements for special equipment. 90.3: Revises format for clarity and readability. 12 2012 NFPA 70E (9) Informative Annex F, Hazard Analysis, Risk Estimation, and Risk Evaluation Procedure

2015 NFPA 70E (9) Informative Annex F, Risk Assessment Procedure 90.4(9): Changes here and in IA F to accurately reflect the information in the procedure. 13 Article 100 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E Accessible, Readily (Readily Accessible). Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or resort to Arc Flash Hazard. Informational Note No. 2: See Table 130.7(C)(15)(e) and Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) for

Article 100 Accessible, Readily (Readily Accessible). Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to actions such as to use tools, to climb over or remove obstacles, or resort to[NEC change] Arc Flash Hazard. Informational Note No. 2: See Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) for 15 2012 NFPA 70E Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. A study investigating a workers potential exposure to arc flash energy, conducted for the purpose of injury prevention and the determination of safe work practices, arc flash boundary, and the appropriate levels of personal protective equipment (PPE). Arc Rating. Informational Note No. 1: FlameResistant (FR) clothing without an

arc rating has not been tested for exposure to an electric arc. Article 100 2015 NFPA 70E Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. A study investigating a workers potential exposure to arc flash energy, conducted for the purpose of injury prevention and the determination of safe work practices, arc flash boundary, and the appropriate levels of personal protective equipment (PPE). Arc Rating. Informational Note No. 1: Flame resistant clothing without an arc rating has not been tested for exposure to an electric arc. All arcrated clothing is also flameresistant. 16 2012 NFPA 70E Bare Hand Work. A technique of performing work on energized electrical conductors or circuit parts,

after the employee has been raised to the potential of the conductor or circuit part. Barricade. A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame-type wood or metal structures intended to provide a warning about and to limit access to a hazardous area. Article 100 2015 NFPA 70E Bare Hand Work. A technique of performing work on energized electrical conductors or circuit parts, after the employee has been raised to the potential of the conductor or circuit part. Barricade. A physical obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame-type wood or metal structures intended to provide a warning about and to limit access to a hazardous area.

17 2012 NFPA 70E Boundary, Prohibited Approach. An approach limit at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit part within which work is considered the same as making contact with the electrical conductor or circuit part. Device. A unit of an electrical system that carries or controls electric energy as its principal function. Article 100 2015 NFPA 70E Boundary, Prohibited Approach. An approach limit at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit part within which work is considered the same as making contact with the electrical conductor or circuit part.

Device. A unit of an electrical system, other than a conductor, that carries or controls electric energy as its principal function. [NEC change] 18 2012 NFPA 70E New definition New definition 2015 NFPA 70E Hazard. A source of possible injury or damage to health. Hazardous. Involving exposure to at least one hazard. Incident Energy. The amount of

energy impressed on a surface, a certain distance from the source generated during an electrical arc event. One of the units used to measure incident energy is calories per centimeter squared (cal/cm2). Article 100 Incident Energy. The amount of thermal energy impressed on a surface, a certain distance from the source generated during an electrical arc event. Incident energy is typically expressed in calories per square centimeter (cal/cm2). 19 2012 NFPA 70E Luminaire. A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps, together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and ballast (where applicable), and to connect the lamps to the power supply Qualified Person. One who has skills and knowledge related to the

construction and operation of the electrical equipment and installations and has received safety training to recognize and avoid the hazards involved. Article 100 2015 NFPA 70E Luminaire. A complete lighting unit consisting of a light source, such as a lamp or lamps, together with the parts designed to position the light source, and connect it to the power supply[NEC change] Qualified Person. One who has demonstrated skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of electrical equipment and installations and has received safety training to identify and avoid the hazards involved. 20 2012 NFPA 70E Raceway. An enclosed channel of metal or nonmetallic materials

designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this standard. Raceways include, but are not limited to, rigid metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, intermediate metal conduit, liquidtight flexible conduit, flexible metallic tubing, flexible metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, electrical nonmetallic tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, wireways, and busways. New defintion Article 100 2015 NFPA 70E Raceway. An enclosed channel of metal or nonmetallic materials designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this standard.[NEC change] Risk.

A combination of the likelihood of occurrence of injury or damage to health and the severity of injury or damage to health that results from a hazard. 21 2012 NFPA 70E New definition 2015 NFPA 70E Risk Assessment. An overall process that identifies hazards, estimates the potential severity of injury or damage top health, estimates the likelihood of occurrence of injury or damage to health and determines if protective measures are required. Informational Note: As used in this standard, arc flash risk assessment and shock risk assessment are types of risk assessments. Ventilated. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes, or vapors.

Article 100 Ventilated. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes, or vapors. 22 2012 NFPA 70E Voltage, Nominal. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (e.g., 120/240 volts, 480Y/277 volts, 600 volts). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. Article 100 2015 NFPA 70E Voltage, Nominal. A

nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (e.g., 120/240 volts, 480Y/277 volts, 600 volts). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. [NEC change] 23 Article 110 2012 NFPA 70E 110.1 Relationships with Contractors (Outside Service Personnel, and So Forth). 110.2 Training Requirements. 110.3 Electrical Safety Program. 2015 NFPA 70E

110.1 Electrical Safety Program. 110.2 Training Requirements. 110.3 Relationships with Contractors (Outside Service Personnel, and So Forth). Article 110 is reformatted for usability 25 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 110.3(A) General. The employer shall implement and document an overall electrical safety program that directs activity appropriate for the electrical hazards, voltage, energy level, and circuit conditions.

110.1(A) The employer shall implement and document an overall electrical safety program that directs activity appropriate to the risk associated with electrical hazards, voltage, energy level, and circuit conditions. The electrical safety program shall be implemented as part of the employers overall occupational health and safety management system, when one exists. Language Added to Clarify Role of Electrical Safety Program 26 2012 NFPA 70E 110.3(A) General. Informational Note No. 1: Safety-related work practices are just one component of an overall electrical safety program. Informational Note No. 2: ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005, American National Standard for Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems provides a framework for establishing a comprehensive electrical safety

program as a component of an employers occupational safety and health program. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.1(A) General. Informational Note No. 1: Safetyrelated work practices such as verification of proper maintenance and installation, alerting techniques, auditing requirements, and training requirements provided in this standard are administrative controls and part of an overall electrical safety program. Informational Note No. 2: ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005, American National Standard for Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems provides a framework for establishing a comprehensive electrical safety program as a component of an employers occupational safety and health program. Language added to provide examples of Safety-related work practices. 27 2012 NFPA 70E 110.3(A) General. New Information Notes 2015 NFPA 70E 110.1(A) General.

Informational Note No. 3: IEEE 3007.1, Recommended Practice for the Operation and Management of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems, provides additional guidance for the implementation of the electrical safety program. Informational Note No. 4: IEEE 3007.3, Recommended Practice for Electrical safety in Industrial and Commercial Power Systems, provides additional guidance for electrical safety in the workplace. I.N.s provide more information for developing an electrical safety program 28 2012 NFPA 70E 110.3(B) Awareness and Self-Discipline. Subsection (B) moved to (C) and all other subsections moved one level. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.1(B) Maintenance. The electrical safety program shall include elements that consider condition of

maintenance of electrical equipment and systems. Maintenance must be part of an overall electrical safety program to ensure proper operation 29 2012 NFPA 70E (G) Job Briefing. (1) General. Before starting each job, the employee in charge shall conduct a job briefing with the employees involved. The briefing shall cover such subjects as hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls, personal protective equipment requirements, and the information on the energized electrical work permit, if required. Additional job briefings shall be held if changes that might affect the safety of employees occur during the course of the work. (2) Repetitive or Similar Tasks. If the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive and similar, at least one job briefing shall be conducted before the start of the first job of the day or shift. (3) Routine Work. Prior to starting work, a brief discussion shall be satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employee is qualified for the task. A more extensive discussion shall be conducted if either of the following apply: (1) The work is complicated or particularly hazardous. (2) The employee cannot be expected to recognize

and avoid the hazards involved in the job. 2015 NFPA 70E (G) Job Briefing. (1) General. Before starting each job, the employee in charge shall conduct a job briefing with the employees involved. The briefing shall cover such subjects as hazards associated with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls, personal protective equipment requirements, and the information on the energized electrical work permit, if required. Additional job briefings shall be held if changes that might affect the safety of employees occur during the course of the work. (2) Routine Work. Prior to starting work, a brief discussion shall be satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employee is qualified for the task. A more extensive discussion shall be conducted if either of the following apply: (1) The work is complicated or involves increased risk. (2) The employee cannot be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job. Paragraph removed as redundant and unnecessary. 30 2012 NFPA 70E (H) Electrical Safety Auditing.

(2) Field Work. Field work shall be audited to verify the requirements contained in the procedures of the electrical safety program are being followed. When the auditing determines that the principles and procedures of the electrical safety program are not being followed, the appropriate revisions to the training program or revisions to the procedures shall be made. (3) Documentation. The audit shall be documented. 2015 NFPA 70E (H) Electrical Safety Auditing. (2) Field Work. Field work shall be audited to verify the requirements contained in the procedures of the electrical safety program are being followed. When the auditing determines that the principles and procedures of the electrical safety program are not being followed, the appropriate revisions to the training program or revisions to the procedures shall be made. The frequency of the audit shall not exceed 1 year. (3) Documentation. The audits shall be documented. Frequency of field audit established.

31 2012 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (A) Safety Training. The training requirements contained in this section shall apply to employees who face a risk of electrical hazard that is not reduced to a safe level by the applicable electrical installation requirements. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (A) Safety Training. The training requirements contained in this section shall apply to employees exposed to an electrical hazard when the risk associated with that hazard is not reduced to a safe level by the applicable electrical installation requirements. Change better describes application of requirement 32

2012 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (C) Emergency Procedures. Employees exposed to shock hazards and those employees responsible for taking action in case of emergency shall be trained in methods of release of victims from contact with exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Employees shall be regularly instructed in methods of first aid and emergency procedures, such as approved methods of resuscitation, if their duties warrant such training. Training of employees in approved methods of resuscitation, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automatic external defibrillator (AED) use, shall be certified by the employer annually. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (C) Emergency Response Training. (1) Contact Release. Employees exposed to shock hazards shall be trained in methods of safe release of victims from contact with exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Refresher training shall occur annually. (2) First Aid, Emergency Response, and Resuscitation. a) Employees responsible for responding to medical emergencies shall be trained in first aid and emergency procedures.

b) Employees responsible for responding to medical emergencies shall trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Refresher training shall occur annually. c) Employees responsible for responding to medical emergencies shall be trained in the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) if an employers emergency response plan includes the use of this device. Refresher training shall occur annually. (3) Training Verification. Employers shall verify at least annually that employee training required by this section is current (4) Documentation. The employer shall document that the training required by this section has occurred. Reformats section for usability. Adds requirements for refresher training and documentation. 33 2012 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (D) Employee Training. (1) Qualified Person. (b) Such persons permitted to work within the limited approach boundary of exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more shall, at a minimum, be additionally trained in all of the following: (1) Skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts from other parts of electrical equipment (2) Skills and techniques necessary to determine

the nominal voltage of exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts (3) Approach distances specified in Table 130.4(C)(a) and Table 130.4(C)(b) and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed (4) Decision-making process necessary to determine the degree and extent of the hazard and the personal protective equipment and job planning necessary to perform the task safely 2015 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (D) Employee Training. (1) Qualified Person. (b) Such persons permitted to work within the limited approach boundary shall, at a minimum, be additionally trained in all of the following: (1) Skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts from other parts of electrical equipment (2) Skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts (3) Approach distances specified in Table 130.4(D) and Table 130.4(D)(b) and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed (4) Decision-making process necessary to be able to do the following: i. Perform the job safety planning ii. Identify electrical hazards iii.

Assess the associated risk iv. Select the appropriate risk control methods from the hierarchy of control identified in 110.1(F), including personal protective equipment. Clarifies and adds to list of knowledge for qualified person. 34 2012 NFPA 70E 110.2 Training Requirements. (3) Retraining. An employee shall receive additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions: (1) If the supervision or annual inspections indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices (2) If new technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those that the employee would normally use (3) If he or she must employ safety-related work practices that are not normally used during his or her regular job duties Retraining shall be performed at intervals not to exceed 3 years. Clarifies wording. 2015 NFPA 70E

110.2 Training Requirements. (3) Retraining. Retraining in safety-related work practices and applicable changes in this standard shall be performed at intervals not to exceed three years. An employee hall receive additional training (or retraining) if any of the following conditions exists: (1) The supervision or annual inspections indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices (2) New technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those that the employee would normally use (3) The employee must employ safetyrelated work practices that are not normally used during his or her regular job duties 35 2012 NFPA 70E 110.1 Relationships with Contractors (Outside Service Personnel, and So Forth). (A) Host Employer Responsibilities. (B) Contract Employer Responsibilities. (3) The contract employer shall advise the host employer of the following: a. Any unique hazards presented by the contract employers work b. Any unanticipated hazards found during the contract employers work that the host employer did not mention

c. The measures the contractor took to correct any violations reported by the host employer under 110.1(A)(2) and to prevent such violation from recurring in the future (C) Documentation. There shall be a documented meeting between the host employer and the contract employer. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.3 Relationships with Contractors (Outside Service Personnel, and So Forth). (A) Host Employer Responsibilities. (B) Contract Employer Responsibilities. (3) The contract employer shall advise the host employer of the following: a. Any unique hazards presented by the contract employers work b. Any unanticipated hazards found during the contract employers work that the host employer did not mention c. The measures the contractor took to correct any violations reported by the host employer under 110.3(A)(2) and to prevent such violation from recurring in the future (C) Documentation. Where the host employer has knowledge of hazards covered by this standard that are related to the contract employers work, there shall be a documented meeting between the host employer and the contract employer. Moves section. Limits requirements for meeting to only knowledgeable host employers.

36 2012 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (A) Test Instruments and Equipment. (2) Rating. Test instruments, equipment, and their accessories shall be rated for circuits and equipment to which they will be connected. (4) Visual Inspection. Test instruments and equipment and all associated test leads, cables, power cords, probes, and connectors shall be visually inspected for external defects and damage before each use. If there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged item shall be removed from service, and no employee shall use it until repairs and tests necessary to render the equipment safe have been made. (5) Operation Verification. When test instruments are used for testing the absence of voltage on conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more, the operation of the test instrument shall be verified before and after an absence of voltage test is performed. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Electrical Equipment. (A) Test Instruments and Equipment. (2) Rating. Test instruments, equipment, and their accessories shall be rated for circuits and equipment where they are utilized. (4) Visual Inspection and Repair. Test instruments and equipment and all associated test leads, cables, power cords, probes, and

connectors shall be visually inspected for external defects and damage before each use. If there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged item shall be removed from service. No employee shall use it until a person(s) qualified to perform the repairs and tests that are necessary to render the equipment safe has done so. (5) Operation Verification. When test instruments are used for testing the absence of voltage on conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more, the operation of the test instrument shall be verified on a known voltage source before and after an absence of voltage test is performed. Wording changes for technical accuracy. Additional language to ensure competent persons make repairs 37 2012 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (B) Portable Electric Equipment. This section applies to the use of cord- and plugconnected equipment, including cord sets (extension cords). (1) Handling. Portable equipment shall be handled in a manner that will not cause damage. Flexible electric cords connected to equipment shall not be used for raising or lowering the

equipment. Flexible cords shall not be fastened with staples or hung in such a fashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (B) Portable Electric Equipment. This section applies to the use of cord- and plug-connected equipment, including cord sets (extension cords). (1) Handling and Storage. Portable equipment shall be handled and stored in a manner that will not cause damage. Flexible electric cords connected to equipment shall not be used for raising or lowering the equipment. Flexible cords shall not be fastened with staples or hung in such a fashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation. Changes expand application to storage as well as use. 38 2012 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (B) Portable Electric Equipment. This section applies to the use of cord- and plug-connected equipment, including cord sets (extension cords). (3) Visual Inspection of Portable Cord- and

Plug. Connected Equipment and Flexible Cord Sets. (a) Frequency of Inspection. Before each use, portable cord- and plug-connected equipment shall be visually inspected for external defects (such as loose parts or deformed and missing pins) and for evidence of possible internal damage (such as a pinched or crushed outer jacket). Exception: Cord- and plug-connected equipment and flexible cord sets (extension cords) that remain connected once they are put in place and are not exposed to damage shall not be required to be visually inspected until they are relocated. (b) Defective Equipment. If there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged item shall be removed from service, and no employee shall use it until repairs and tests necessary to render the equipment safe have been made. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (B) Portable Electric Equipment. This section applies to the use of cord- and plug-connected equipment, including cord sets (extension cords). (3) Visual Inspection and Repair of Portable Cord- and Plug. Connected Equipment and Flexible Cord Sets. (a) Frequency of Inspection. Before each use, portable cord- and plug-connected equipment shall be visually inspected for external defects (such as loose parts or deformed and missing pins) and for evidence of possible internal damage (such as a pinched or crushed outer jacket).

Exception: Cord- and plug-connected equipment and flexible cord sets (extension cords) that remain connected once they are put in place and are not exposed to damage shall not be required to be visually inspected until they are relocated. (b) Defective Equipment. If there is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee to injury, the defective or damaged item shall be removed from service. No employee shall use it until a person(s) qualified to perform the repairs and tests necessary to render the equipment safe has done so. Changes require qualified persons to repair portable electrical equipment. 39 2012 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (B) Portable Electric Equipment. (3) Visual Inspection of Portable Cord- and Plug. Connected Equipment and Flexible Cord Sets. (d) Conductive Work Locations. Portable electric equipment used in highly conductive work locations (such as those inundated with water or other conductive liquids), or in job locations where employees are likely to contact water or conductive liquids, shall be approved for those locations. In job locations where employees are likely to contact or be drenched with water or conductive liquids, ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel shall also be used. Informational Note: The hazard/risk evaluation procedure could also include identifying when the use of portable tools and equipment powered by sources other than 120 volts ac, such as batteries, air, and hydraulics, should be

used to minimize the potential for injury from electrical hazards for tasks performed in conductive or wet locations. (4) Connecting Attachment Plugs. (a) Employees hands shall not be wet when plugging and unplugging flexible cords and cord- and plugconnected equipment if energized equipment is involved. (b) Energized plug and receptacle connections shall be handled only with insulating protective equipment if the condition of the connection could provide a conductive path to the employees hand (for example, if a cord connector is wet from being immersed in water). (c) Locking-type connectors shall be secured after connection. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (B) Portable Electric Equipment (3) Visual Inspection and Repair of Portable Cord- and Plug. Connected Equipment and Flexible Cord Sets. (4) Conductive Work Locations. Portable electric equipment used in highly conductive work locations (such as those inundated with water or other conductive liquids), or in job locations where employees are likely to contact water or conductive liquids, shall be approved for those locations. In job locations where employees are likely to contact or be drenched with water or conductive liquids, ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel shall also be used. Informational Note: The hazard/risk evaluation procedure could also include identifying when the use of portable tools and equipment powered by sources other than 120 volts ac, such as batteries,

air, and hydraulics, should be used to minimize the potential for injury from electrical hazards for tasks performed in conductive or wet locations (6) Manufacturers Instructions. Portable equipment shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and safety warnings. Format changes and additional rule to follow manufacturers instructions. 40 2012 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (C) Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter (GFCI) Protection. (1) General. Employees shall be provided with ground-fault circuitinterrupter (GFCI) protection where required by applicable state, federal, or local codes and standards. Listed cord sets or devices incorporating listed GFCI protection for personnel identified for portable use shall be permitted. (2) Outdoors. GFCI protection shall be provided when an employee is outdoors and operating or using cord- and plugconnected equipment supplied by 125volt, 15-, 20-, or 30-ampere circuits. Where employees working outdoors operate or use equipment supplied by other than 125-volt, 15-, 20-, or 30ampere circuits, an assured equipment grounding program shall Addedconductor application for be GFCI

implemented. just location. 2015 NFPA 70E 110.4 Use of Equipment. (C) Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter (GFCI) Protection. (1) General. Employees shall be provided with ground-fault circuit-interrupter (GFCI) protection where required by applicable state, federal, or local codes and standards. Listed cord sets or devices incorporating listed GFCI protection for personnel identified for portable use shall be permitted. (2) Maintenance and Construction. GFCI protection shall be provided when an employee is operating or using cord- and plug-connected equipment supplied by 125-volt, 15-, 20-, or 30ampere circuits. Where employees working outdoors operate or use equipment supplied by greater than 125-volt, 15-, 20-, or 30-ampere circuits, an assured equipment grounding conductor program shall be implemented. (3) Outdoors. GFCI protection shall be provided when an employee is outdoors and operating or using cord- and plug-connected equipment supplied by 125volt, 15-, 20-, or 30-ampere circuits. Where employees working outdoors operate or use equipment supplied by greater than 125-volt, 15-, 20-, or 30-ampere circuits, an assured equipment grounding conductor program shall be implemented. for activities rather than 41 2012 NFPA 70E

110.5 Underground Electrical Lines and Equipment. Before excavation starts, and where there exists a reasonable possibility of contacting electrical lines or equipment, the employer shall take the necessary steps to contact the appropriate owners or authorities to identify and mark the location of the electrical lines or equipment. When it has been determined that a reasonable possibility for contacting electrical lines or equipment exists, a hazard analysis shall be performed to identify the appropriate safe work practices that shall be used during the excavation. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.9 Underground Electrical Lines and equipment. Before excavation starts, and where there exists a reasonable possibility of contacting electrical lines or equipment, the employer shall take the necessary steps to contact the appropriate owners or authorities to identify and mark the location of the electrical lines or equipment. When it has been determined that a reasonable possibility of contacting electrical lines or equipment exists, appropriate safe work practices

and PPE shall be used during the excavation. Section moved to Article 130 and minor wording changes made for usability. 42 Article 120 2012 NFPA 70E 120.1 Process of Achieving an Electrically Safe Work Condition. (5) Use an adequately rated voltage detector to test each phase conductor or circuit part to verify they are deenergized. Test each phase conductor or circuit part both phase-to-phase and phaseto-ground. Before and after each test, determine that the voltage detector is operating satisfactorily. 2015 NFPA 70E 120.1 Verification of an Electrically Safe Work Condition. (5) Use an adequately rated test instrument to test each phase conductor or circuit part to verify it is deenergized. Test each phase conductor or circuit

part both phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground. Before and after each test, determine that the test instrument is operating satisfactorily through verification on a known voltage source. Changes are for technical accuracy. 44 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 120.2 De-energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts That Have Lockout/Tagout Devices Applied. (2) Training. All persons who could be exposed shall be trained to understand the established procedure to control the energy and their responsibility in executing the procedure. New (or reassigned) employees shall be trained (or retrained) to understand the lockout/ tagout procedure as it relates to their new assignment. Retraining shall be required as the established procedure is revised. (No additional information)

120.2 De-energized Electrical Equipment That Has Lockout/Tagout Devices Applied. (3) Retraining. Retraining shall be performed: a) When the established procedure is revised b) At intervals not to exceed 3 years. (4) Training Documentation. c) The employer shall document that each employee has received the training required by this section. d) The documentation shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved. e) The documentation shall contain the content of the training, each employees name and the dates of the training. Informational Note: Content of the training could include one or more of the following: course syllabus, course curriculum, outline, revised table to add requirements of contents, or training objectives. The section has been for retraining and documentation. 45 2012 NFPA 70E 120.3 Temporary Protective

Grounding Equipment. (A) Placement. Temporary protective grounding equipment shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner as to prevent each employee from being exposed to hazardous differences in electrical potential. 2015 NFPA 70E 120.3 Temporary Protective Grounding Equipment. (A) Placement. Temporary protective grounding equipment shall be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner as to prevent each employee from being exposed to a shock hazard (hazardous differences in electrical potential). The location, sizing, and application of temporary protective grounding equipment shall be identified as part of the employers job planning. Additional rules for planning the placement of temporary grounding equipment. 46 Article 130

2012 NFPA 70E 130.1 General. All requirements of this article shall apply whether an incident energy analysis is completed or if Table 130.7(C)(15)(a), Table 130.7(C)(15)(b), and Table 130.7(C)(16) are used in lieu of an incident energy analysis in accordance with 130.5, Exception. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.1 General. Article 130 covers the following: 1) When an electrically safe work condition must be established 2) The electrical safety-related work practices when an electrically safe work condition cannot be established. All requirements of this article shall apply whether an incident energy analysis is completed or if Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a), Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b), Table 130.7(C) (15)(B), and Table 130.7(C)(16) are used in lieu of an incident energy analysis in accordance with 130.5. Reformatted for clarity and updated table references. 48

2012 NFPA 70E 130.2(A) Energized Work. (1) Greater Hazard. (2) Infeasibility. (3) Less Than 50 Volts. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.2(A) Energized Work. (1) Additional Hazards or Increased Risk. (2) Infeasibility. (3) Less Than 50 Volts (4) Normal Operation. Normal operation of electric equipment shall be permitted where all of the following conditions are satisfied: 1) The equipment is properly installed 2) The equipment is properly maintained 3) The equipment doors are closed and secured 4) All equipment covers are in place and secured 5) There is no evidence of impending failure Added consideration for normal operation of energized electrical equipment. 49 2012 NFPA 70E 130.2(A) Energized Work. (1) Greater Hazard. (2) Infeasibility.

(3) Less Than 50 Volts. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.2(A) Energized Work. (4) Normal Operations Informational Note: The phrase properly installed means that the equipment is installed in accordance with the applicable industry codes and standards and the manufacturers recommendations. The phrase properly maintained means that the equipment has been maintained in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations and applicable industry codes and standards. The phrase evidence of impending failure means that there is evidence such as arcing, overheating, loose or bound equipment parts, visible damage, or deterioration. Added Informational Note to explain phrases used in new rule. 50 2012 NFPA 70E (B) Energized Electrical Work Permit. (1) When Required. When working within the limited approach boundary or the arc flash boundary of exposed energized electrical conductors

or circuit parts that are not placed in an electrically safe work condition [that is, for the reasons of increased or additional hazards or infeasibility per 130.2(A)], work to be performed shall be considered energized electrical work and shall be performed by written permit only. 2015 NFPA 70E (B) Energized Electrical Work Permit. When Required. When energized work is permitted in accordance with 130.2(A), an energized electrical work permit shall be required under the following conditions: 1) When work is performed within the restricted approach boundary 2) When the employee interacts with the equipment when conductors or circuit parts are not exposed but an increased likelihood of injury from an exposure to an arc flash hazard exists . Moves the boundary requirement for EEWP to Restricted Approach. 51 2012 NFPA 70E (2) Elements of Work Permit. The energized

electrical work permit shall include, but not be limited to, the following items: (4) Results of the shock hazard analysis [see 130.4(A)] a. Limited approach boundary [see 130.4(B) and Table 130.4(C)(a) and Table 130.4(C)(b)] b. Restricted approach boundary [see 130.4(B) and Table 130.4(C)(a) and Table 130.4(C)(b)] c. Prohibited approach boundary [see 130.4(B) and Table 130.4(C)(a) and Table 130.4(C)(b)] d. Necessary shock personal and other protective equipment to safely perform the assigned task [see 130.4(C), 130.7(C)(1) through (C)(16), Table 130.7(C)(15)(a), Table 130.7(C)(15)(b), and Table 130.7(C)(16), and 130.7(D)] (5) Results of the arc flash hazard analysis [see 130.5] a. Available incident energy or hazard/risk category [see 130.5] b. Necessary personal protective equipment to safely perform the assigned task. [see 130.5(B), 130.7(C)(1) through (C)(16), Table 130.7(C)(15)(a), Table 130.7(C)(15)(b), and Table 130.7(C)(16), and 130.7(D)] c. Arc flash boundary [see 130.5(A)] 2015 NFPA 70E (2) Elements of Work Permit. The energized electrical work permit shall include, but not be limited to, the following items: (4) Results of the shock risk assessment [see 130.4(A)] a. Voltage to which personnel will be exposed b. Limited approach boundary [see 130.4(B) and Table 130.4(D)(b)

c. Restricted approach boundary [see 130.4(B) and Table 130.4(D)(b) d. Necessary shock personal and other protective equipment to safely perform the assigned task [see 130.4(C), 130.7(C)(1) through (C)(16), Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a), Table 130.7(C)(16), and 130.7(D)] (5) Results of the arc flash risk assessment [see 130.5] a. Available incident energy at the working distance or arc flash PPE category [see 130.5] b. Necessary PPE to protect against the hazard. [see 130.5(E), 130. ), 7(C)(1) through (C)(16), Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a),Table 130.7(C)(16), and 130.7(D)] c. Arc flash boundary [see 130.5(C)] Informational Note: For an example of an acceptable energized work permit, see Figure J.1 . Removes reference to Prohibited Approach Boundary and HRC since they no longer are applicable. 52 2012 NFPA 70E 130.2 (B) Energized Electrical Work Permit. (3) Exemptions to Work Permit. Work performed within the limited approach boundary of energized electrical conductors or circuit parts by qualified persons related to tasks such as testing, troubleshooting, and voltage measuring

shall be permitted to be performed without an energized electrical work permit, if appropriate safe work practices and personal protective equipment in accordance with Chapter 1 are provided and used. If the purpose of crossing the limited approach boundary is only for visual inspection and the restricted approach boundary will not be crossed, then an energized electrical work permit shall not be required. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.2 (B) Energized Electrical Work Permit. (3) Exemptions to Work Permit. An energized electrical work permit shall not be required if a qualified person is provided with and uses appropriate safe work practices and PPE in accordance with Chapter 1 under any of the following conditions: 1) Testing, troubleshooting, and voltage measuring 2) Thermography and visual inspections if the restricted approach boundary is not crossed 3) Access to and egress from an area with energized electrical equipment if no electrical work is performed and the restricted approach boundary is not crossed 4) General housekeeping and miscellaneous non-electrical tasks if the restricted approach boundary is not crossed.

Reformatted and adds items to exempt list. 53 2012 NFPA 70E 130.3 Working While Exposed to Electrical Hazards. (A) General. Safety-related work practices shall be used to safeguard employees from injury while they are exposed to electrical hazards from electrical conductors or circuit parts that are or can become energized. The specific safety related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.3 Working While Exposed to Electrical Hazards. (A) General. Safety-related work practices shall be used to safeguard employees from injury while they are exposed to electrical hazards from electrical conductors or circuit parts that are or can become energized. The specific safety related work practices shall be consistent with the electrical hazards and the associated risk. Appropriate safety-related work practices shall be determined before any person is exposed to the electrical hazards

involved by using both shock risk assessment and arc flash risk assessment. Only qualified persons shall be permitted to work on electrical conductors or circuit parts that have not been put into an electrically safe work condition. Change incorporates language and removes Item (B) (1) as redundant and relocates (B)(2) to 130.6(N). 54 2012 NFPA 70E 130.4 Approach Boundaries to Energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts. (A) Shock Hazard Analysis. A shock hazard analysis shall determine the voltage to which personnel will be exposed, the boundary requirements, and the personal protective equipment necessary in order to minimize the possibility of electric shock to personnel. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.4 Approach Boundaries to Energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts for Shock Protection. (A) Shock Hazard Risk Assessment. A shock risk

assessment shall determine the voltage to which personnel will be exposed, the boundary requirements, and the PPE equipment necessary in order to minimize the possibility of electric shock to personnel. Changes reflect new approach for risk assessment and clarifies 130.4 is specific to shock hazards. 55 2012 NFPA 70E 130.4(B) Shock Protection Boundaries. The shock protection boundaries identified as limited approach, restricted approach, and prohibited approach boundaries shall be applicable where approaching personnel are exposed to energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Table 130.4(C) (a) shall be used for the distances associated with various ac system voltages. Table 130.4(C)(b) shall be used for the distances associated with various dc system voltages. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.4(B) Shock Protection Boundaries. The shock

protection boundaries identified as limited approach boundary and restricted approach boundary shall be applicable where approaching personnel are exposed to energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Table 130.4(D)(a) shall be used for the distances associated with various ac system voltages. Table 130.4(D)(b) shall be used for the distances associated with various dc system voltages. Changes reflect removal of the Prohibited Approach Boundary and relocation of tables. 56 2012 NFPA 70E 130.4(D) Approach by Unqualified Persons. Unless permitted by 130.4(D)(2), no unqualified person shall be permitted to approach nearer than the limited approach boundary of energized conductors and circuit parts. (1) Working At or Close to the Limited Approach Boundary. Where one or more unqualified persons are working at or close to the limited approach boundary, the designated person in charge of the work space where the electrical hazard exists shall advise the

unqualified person(s) of the electrical hazard and warn him or her to stay outside of the limited approach boundary. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.4(C) Limited Approach Boundary. (1) Unless permitted by 130.4(C)(3), no unqualified person shall be permitted to approach nearer than the limited approach boundary of energized conductors and circuit parts. (2) Working At or Close to the Limited Approach Boundary. Where one or more unqualified persons are working at or close to the limited approach boundary, the designated person in charge of the work space where the electrical hazard exists shall advise the unqualified person(s) of the electrical hazard and warn him or her to stay outside of the limited approach boundary. Section moved and retitled to reflect requirements for crossing Limited Approach Boundary. 57 2012 NFPA 70E 130.4(D) Approach by Unqualified Persons.

(2) Entering the Limited Approach Boundary. Where there is a need for an unqualified person(s) to cross the limited approach boundary, a qualified person shall advise him or her of the possible hazards and continuously escort the unqualified person(s) while inside the limited approach boundary. Under no circumstance shall the escorted unqualified person(s) be permitted to cross the restricted approach boundary. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.4(C) Limited Approach Boundary. (3) Entering the Limited Approach Boundary. Where there is a need for an unqualified person(s) to cross the limited approach boundary, a qualified person shall advise him or her of the possible hazards and continuously escort the unqualified person(s) while inside the limited approach boundary. Under no circumstance shall the escorted unqualified person(s) be permitted to cross the restricted approach boundary. Section moved and retitled to reflect requirements for crossing Limited Approach Boundary.

58 2012 NFPA 70E 130.4(C) Approach to Exposed Energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts Operating at 50 Volts or More. No qualified person shall approach or take any conductive object closer to exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more than the restricted approach boundary set forth in Table 130.4(C)(a) and Table 130.4(C)(b), unless any of the following apply: (1) The qualified person is insulated or guarded from the energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more. insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves are considered insulation only with regard to the energized parts upon which work is being performed. If there is a need for an uninsulated part of the qualified persons body to cross the prohibited approach boundary, a combination of 130.4(C)(1), 130.4(C)(2), and 130.4(C)(3) shall be used to protect the uninsulated body parts. (2) The energized electrical conductors or circuit part operating at 50 volts or more are insulated from the qualified person and from any other conductive object at a different potential. (3) The qualified person is insulated from any other conductive object as during live-line bare-hand work. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.4(D) Restricted Approach Boundary. No qualified person shall approach or take any

conductive object closer to exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more than the restricted approach boundary set forth in Table 130.4(D)(a) and Table 130.4(D)(b), unless one of the following conditions applies: (1) The qualified person is insulated or guarded from the energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more. insulating gloves or insulating gloves and sleeves are considered insulation only with regard to the energized parts upon which work is being performed. If there is a need for an uninsulated part of the qualified persons body to cross the prohibited approach boundary, a combination of 130.4(D)(1), 130.4(D)(2), and 130.4(D)(3) shall be used to protect the uninsulated body parts. (2) The energized electrical conductors or circuit part operating at 50 volts or more are insulated from the qualified person and from any other conductive object at a different potential. (3) The qualified person is insulated from any other conductive object. Section moved and retitled to reflect requirements for crossing Restricted Approach Boundary. 59 2012 NFPA 70E 60 2015 NFPA 70E

Table 130.4(D)(a) Approach Boundaries to Energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts for Shock Protection for Alternating -Current Systems (All dimensions are distance from energized electrical conductor or circuit part to employee.) (1) (2) (3) (4) Limited Approach Boundary b Nominal System Voltage Range, Phase to Phase a Exposed Movable Conductor c Exposed Fixed Circuit Part <50 V 50 V-150 V d 151 V-750 V 751 V-15 kV Not specified 3.0 m (10 ft0 in.) 3.0 m (10 ft0 in.) 3.0 m (10 ft0 in.)

Not specified 1.0 m (3 ft6 in.) 1.0 m (3 ft6 in.) 1.5 m (5 ft0 in.) Restricted Approach Boundary b ; Includes Inadvertent Movement Adder Not specified Avoid contact 0.3 m (1 ft0 in.) 0.7 m (2 ft2 in.) 765 kV-800 kV 7.2 m (23 ft9 in.) 7.2 m (23 ft9 in.) 4.9 m (15 ft 11 in.) Note (1): For arc flash boundary see 130.5(A). Note (2): All dimensions are distance from exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit part to employee a For single-phase systems above 250V, select the range that is equal to the systems maximum phaseto-ground voltage multiplied by 1.732. b See definition in Article 100 and text in 130.4(D)(2) and Informative Annex C for elaboration. c Exposed movable conductors describes a condition in which the distance between the conductor and a

person is not under the control of the person. The term is normally applied to overhead line conductors supported by poles. d This includes circuits where the exposure does not exceed 120V nominal. 61 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E Table 130.4(C)(a) Table 130.4(D)(a) Note: For arc flash boundary, see 130.5(A). a For single-phase systems, select the range that is equal to the systems maximum phaseto-ground voltage multiplied by 1.732. b See definition in Article 100 and text in 130.4(D)(2) and Annex C for elaboration. C This term describes a condition in which the distance between the conductor and a person is not under the control of the person. The term is normally applied to overhead line conductors supported by poles. Note (1): For arc flash boundary see 130.5(A). Note (2): All dimensions are distance from exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit part to employee a

For single-phase systems above 250V, select the range that is equal to the systems maximum phase-to-ground voltage multiplied by 1.732. b See definition in Article 100 and text in 130.4(D)(2) and Informative Annex C for elaboration. c Exposed movable conductors describes a condition in which the distance between the conductor and a person is not under the control of the person. The term is normally applied to overhead line conductors supported by poles. d This includes circuits where the exposure does not exceed 120V nominal. Notes revised to account for 240 volt systems and clarification of existing language. 62 2012 NFPA 70E 63 2015 NFPA 70E Table 130.4(D)(b) Approach Boundaries to Energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts for Shock Protection , Direct-Current Voltage Systems (1) (2)

(3) (4) Limited Approach Boundary Nominal Potential Diference Exposed Movable Conductor * Exposed Fixed Circuit Part <100 V 100 V-300 V 301 V-1 kV 1.1 kV-5 kV Not specified 3.0 m (10 ft0 in.) 3.0 m (10 ft0 in.) 3.0 m (10 ft0 in.) Not specified 1.0 m (3 ft6 in.) 1.0 m (3 ft6 in.) 1.5 m (5 ft0 in.) Restricted Approach Boundary; Includes Inadvertent Movement Adder

Not specified Avoid contact 0.3 m (1 ft0 in.) 0.5 m (1 ft5 in.) 500.1 kV-800 kV 8.0 m (26 ft0 in.) 8.0 m (26 ft0 in.) 5.0 m (16 ft 5 in.) Note: All dimensions are distance from exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit part to worker. * Exposed movable conductor describes a condition in which the distance between the conductor and a person is not under the control of the person. The term is normally applied to overhead line conductors supported by poles. 64 2012 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. An arc flash hazard analysis shall determine the arc flash boundary, the incident energy at the working distance, and the personal protective equipment that people within the arc flash boundary shall use. The arc flash hazard analysis shall be updated when a major modification or renovation takes place. It shall be reviewed periodically, not to exceed 5 years, to account for changes in the electrical distribution system that could affect the results of the arc flash hazard analysis. The arc flash hazard analysis shall take into consideration the design of the overcurrent

protective device and its opening time, including its condition of maintenance. Exception: The requirements of 130.7(C)(15) and 130.7(C)(16) shall be permitted to be used in lieu of determining the incident energy at the working distance. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. An arc flash risk assessment shall be performed and shall: 1) Determine if an arc flash hazard exists. If an arc flash hazard exists, the risk assessment shall determine: a. Appropriate safety-related work practices b. The arc flash boundary c. The PPE to be used within the arc flash boundary 2) Be updated when a major modification or renovation takes place. It shall be reviewed periodically, at intervals not to exceed 5 years, to account for changes in the electrical distribution system that could affect the results of the arc flash risk assessment. 3) Take into consideration the design of the overcurrent protective device and its opening time, including its condition of maintenance. Section reformatted for readability. Exception and requirement for incident energy determination relocated

65 2012 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. Informational Note No. 1: Improper or inadequate maintenance can result in increased opening time of the overcurrent protective device, thus increasing the incident energy. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. Informational Note No. 1: Improper or inadequate maintenance can result in increased opening time of the overcurrent protective device, thus increasing the incident energy. Where equipment is not properly installed or maintained, PPE selection based on incident energy analysis or the PPE category method may not provide adequate protection from arc flash hazards. Change explains the results of not installing or maintaining equipment properly. 66

2012 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. Informational Note No. 3: The occurrence of an arcing fault inside an enclosure produces a variety of physical phenomena very different from a bolted fault. For example, the arc energy resulting from an arc developed in the air will cause a sudden pressure increase and localized overheating. Equipment and design practices are available to minimize the energy levels and the number of at-risk procedures that require an employee to be exposed to high-level energy sources. Proven designs such as arc-resistant switchgear, remote racking (insertion or removal), remote opening and closing of switching devices, high-resistance grounding of low-voltage and 5-kV (nominal) systems, current limitation, and specification of covered bus or covered conductors within equipment are techniques available to reduce the hazard of the system 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. Informational Note No. 3: The occurrence of an arcing fault inside an enclosure produces a variety of physical phenomena very different from a bolted fault. For example, the arc energy resulting from an arc developed in the air will cause a sudden pressure increase and localized overheating. Equipment and design practices are available to minimize the energy levels and the number of procedures that could expose an employee to high levels of incident

energy. Proven designs such as arc-resistant switchgear, remote racking (insertion or removal), remote opening and closing of switching devices, high-resistance grounding of low-voltage and 5000 volts (nominal) systems, current limitation, and specification of covered bus or covered conductors within equipment are available to reduce the risk associated with an arc flash incident. See Informative Annex O for SafetyRelated Design Requirements. Wording is clarified and a new reference to Informative Annex O added. 67 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. Informational Note No. 5: See IEEE 1584 for more information regarding arc flash hazards for three-phase systems rated less than 240 volts. Informational Note No. 5: See IEEE 1584 for more information regarding arc flash hazards for

three-phase systems. Reference to less than 240 volts removed for accuracy. 68 2012 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. (A) Arc Flash Boundary. The arc flash boundary for systems 50 volts and greater shall be the distance at which the incident energy equals 5 J/cm2 (1.2 cal/cm2). Informational Note: For information on estimating the arc flash boundary, see Annex D. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. (A) Documentation. The results of the arc flash risk assessment shall be documented. (B) Arc Flash Boundary. 1) The arc flash boundary shall be the distance at which the incident energy equals 5 J/cm2 (1.2 cal/cm2). Informational Note: For information on estimating the arc flash boundary, see Annex D. 2)

The arc flash boundary shall be permitted to be determined by Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b) or Table 130.7(C)(15)(B), when the requirements of these tables apply. Added requirement to document assessment and reformatted section. 69 2012 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. (B) Protective Clothing and Other Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Application with an Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. Where it has been determined that work will be performed within the arc flash boundary, one of the following methods shall be used for the selection of protective clothing and other personal protective equipment (PPE): (1) Incident Energy Analysis. The incident energy analysis shall determine, and the employer shall document, the incident energy exposure of the worker (in calories per square centimeter). The incident energy exposure level shall be based on the working distance of the employees face and chest areas from a prospective arc source for the specific task to be performed. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE shall be used by the employee based on the incident energy exposure associated with the specific task. Recognizing that incident energy increases as the distance from the arc flash decreases, additional PPE shall be used for any

parts of the body that are closer than the distance at which the incident energy was determined. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. (C) Arc Flash PPE. One of the following methods shall be used for the selection of PPE. Either, but not both, methods shall be permitted to be used on the same piece of equipment. The results of an incident energy analysis to specify an arc flash PPE Category in Table 130.7(C)(16) shall not be permitted. (1) Incident Energy Analysis Method. The incident energy exposure level shall be based on the working distance of the employees face and chest areas from a prospective arc source for the specific task to be performed. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE shall be used by the employee based on the incident energy exposure associated with the specific task. Recognizing that incident energy increases as the distance from the arc flash decreases, additional PPE shall be used for any parts of the body that are closer than the distance at which the incident energy was determined. Added greater emphasis to requirement that both analysis methods are not permitted simultaneously. 70 2012 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis. (B)(2) Hazard/Risk Categories. The requirements

of 130.7(C)(15) and 130.7(C) (16) shall be permitted to be used for the selection and use of personal and other protective equipment. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment. (C)(2) Arc Flash PPE Categories Method. The requirements of 130.7(C)(15) and 130.7(C)(16) shall apply when the arc flash PPE category method is used for the selection of arc flash PPE. Revisions reflect new approach to use of tables for selection of arc flash PPE. 71 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5(C) Equipment Labeling. Electrical equipment such as switchboards, panelboards, industrial control panels, meter socket enclosures, and motor control centers that are in other than dwelling units, and are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized, shall be field marked with a

label containing all the following information: (1) At least one of the following: a. Available incident energy and the corresponding working distance b. Minimum arc rating of clothing c. Required level of PPE d. Highest Hazard/Risk Category (HRC) for the equipment (2) Nominal system voltage (3) Arc flash boundary 130.5(D) Equipment Labeling. Electrical equipment such as switchboards, panelboards, industrial control panels, meter socket enclosures, and motor control centers that are in other than dwelling units, and are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized, shall be field marked with a label containing all the following information: (1) Nominal system voltage (2) Arc flash boundary (3) At least one of the following: a. Available incident energy and the corresponding working distance, or the arc flash PPE category in Table 130.7(C) (15)(A)(b) or 130.7(C)(B) for the equipment but not both b. Minimum arc rating of clothing c. Site-specific level of PPE Revisions to labels reflect new approach to use of tables72

for selection of arc flash PPE. 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.5(C) Equipment Labeling. 130.5(D) Equipment Labeling. The owner of the electrical equipment shall be responsible for the documentation, installation, and maintenance for the field-marked label. New Requirement. A new requirement that establishes responsibility for installing and maintaining labels. 73 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.6(D) Conductive Articles Being Worn. Conductive articles of jewelry and clothing (such as watchbands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metalized aprons, cloth with

conductive thread, metal headgear, or metal frame glasses) shall not be worn where they present an electrical contact hazard with exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. 130.6(D) Conductive Articles Being Worn. Conductive articles of jewelry and clothing (such as watchbands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metalized aprons, cloth with conductive thread, metal headgear, or metal frame glasses) shall not be worn within the restricted approach boundary or where they present an electrical contact hazard with exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Clarified that the boundary that is considered a shock hazard for qualified persons is the RAB. 74 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.6

New Subsection. 130.6(H) Clear Spaces. Working space in front of electrical equipment required by other codes and standards shall not be used for storage. This space shall be kept clear to permit safe operation and maintenance of electrical equipment. New subsection added to keep area in front of electrical75 equipment clear. 2012 NFPA 70E 130.6(L) Reclosing Circuits After Protective Device Operation. After a circuit is de-energized by the automatic operation of a circuit protective device, the circuit shall not be manually reenergized until it has been determined that the equipment and circuit can be safely energized. The repetitive manual reclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing circuits through replaced fuses shall be prohibited. When it is determined that the automatic operation of a device was caused by an overload rather than a fault condition, examination of the circuit or connected equipment shall not be required before the circuit is reenergized.

2015 NFPA 70E 130.6(M) Reclosing Circuits After Protective Device Operation. After a circuit is de-energized by the automatic operation of a circuit protective device, the circuit shall not be manually reenergized until it has been determined that the equipment and circuit can be safely energized. The repetitive manual reclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing circuits through replaced fuses shall be prohibited. When it is determined from the design of the circuit and the overcurrent devices involved that the automatic operation of a device was caused by an overload rather than a fault condition, examination of the circuit or connected equipment shall not be required before the circuit is reenergized. Replaces language removed for 2012. Corresponds to OSHA language. 76 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(A) Personal and Other Protective Equipment.

130.7(A) Personal and Other Protective Equipment. Informational Note No. 3: When incident energy exceeds 40 cal/cm2 at the working distance, greater emphasis may be necessary with respect to de-energizing before working within the limited approach boundary of the exposed electrical conductors or circuit parts. Informational Note No. 3: When incident energy exceeds 40 cal/cm2 at the working distance, greater emphasis may be necessary with respect to de-energizing when exposed to electrical hazards. Clarifies the concern is not just shock hazards. 77 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(7)(a) Shock Protection. 130.7(C)(7)(a) Shock Protection. Informational Note: Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) provide further information on tasks where rubber insulating

gloves are required. Informational Note: Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) provide further information on tasks where rubber insulating gloves are required. Shock PPE is no longer part of the arc flash tables. 78 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(9) Factors in Selection of Protective Equipment. 130.7(C)(9) Factors in Selection of Protective Equipment. (d) Coverage. Clothing shall cover potentially exposed areas as completely as possible. Shirt and coverall sleeves shall be fastened at the wrists, shirts shall be tucked into pants, and shirts, coveralls, and jackets shall be closed at the neck. (d) Coverage. Clothing shall cover potentially exposed areas as completely as possible. Shirt sleeves shall be fastened at the wrists, and shirts and jackets shall

be closed at the neck. Corrects missing information from previous language. 79 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(12) Clothing and Other 130.7(C)(12) Clothing and Other Apparel Not Permitted. Exception No. 1: Nonmelting, flammable (nonarc-rated) materials shall be permitted to be used as underlayers to arc-rated clothing, as described in 130.7(C) (11), and also shall be permitted to be used for Hazard/Risk Category 0 as described in Table 130.7(C)(16). Apparel Not Permitted. Exception No. 1: Nonmelting, flammable (nonarc-rated) materials shall be permitted to be used as underlayers to arc-rated clothing, as described in 130.7(C) (11). Removes reference to Hazard/Risk Category 0 that no longer exists.

80 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(12) Clothing and Other 130.7(C)(12) Clothing and Other Apparel Not Permitted. Exception No. 2: Where the work to be performed inside the arc flash boundary exposes the worker to multiple hazards, such as airborne contaminants, and the risk assessment identifies that the level of protection is adequate to address the arc flash hazard, non arc-rated PPE shall be permitted. Apparel Not Permitted. Exception No. 2: Where the work to be performed inside the arc flash boundary exposes the worker to multiple hazards, such as airborne contaminants, under special permission by the authority having jurisdiction and where it can be shown that the level of protection is adequate to address the arc flash hazard, nonarc-rated personnel protective equipment shall be permitted. Requires decision for proper PPE to be based on a risk

assessment, not approval of AHJ. 81 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(13) Clothing and Other Apparel Not Permitted. New Informational Note. 130.7(C)(13) Clothing and Other Apparel Not Permitted. Informational Note No. 2: Additional guidance is provided in ASTM F 1449, Standard Guide for Industrial Laundering of Flame, Thermal, and Arc Resistant Clothing, and ASTM F 2757, Standard Guide for Home Laundering Care and Maintenance of Flame, Thermal and Arc Resistant Clothing. New Informational Note references provide laundering information. 82 2012 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. Where selected in lieu of the incident energy

analysis of 130.5(B)(1), Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) shall be used to determine the hazard/risk category and requirements for use of rubber insulating gloves and insulated and insulating hand tools for a task. The assumed maximum short-circuit current capacities and maximum fault clearing times for various tasks are listed in Table 130.7(C)(15)(a). For tasks not listed, or for power systems with greater than the assumed maximum shortcircuit current capacity or with longer than the assumed maximum fault clearing times, an incident energy analysis shall be required in accordance with 130.5. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. (A) Alternating Current (ac) Equipment. Where selected in lieu of the incident energy analysis of 130.5(B) (1), Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) shall be used to identify when arc flash PPE is required. Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b) shall be used to determine the arc flash PPE category. The estimated maximum available short-circuit current, maximum fault clearing times, and minimum working distances for various ac equipment types or classifications are listed in Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b).

Changes reflect new approach to PPE tables. 83 2012 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. Where selected in lieu of the incident energy analysis of 130.5(B)(1), Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) shall be used to determine the hazard/risk category and requirements for use of rubber insulating gloves and insulated and insulating hand tools for a task. The assumed maximum short-circuit current capacities and maximum fault clearing times for various tasks are listed in Table 130.7(C)(15)(a). For tasks not listed, or for power systems with greater than the assumed maximum shortcircuit current capacity or with longer than the assumed maximum fault clearing times, an incident energy analysis shall be required in accordance with 130.5. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE An incident energy analysis shall be

required in accordance with 130.5 for the following: 1) Tasks not listed in Table 130.7(C) (15)(A)(a) 2) Power systems with greater than the estimated maximum available short-circuit current 3) Power systems with longer than the maximum fault clearing times 4) Tasks with less than the minimum working distance. Changes reflect new approach to PPE tables. 84 2012 NFPA 70E 85 2012 NFPA 70E Notes to Table 130.7(C)(15)(a) Y = Yes (required). N: No (not required). Notes: (1) Rubber insulating gloves are gloves rated for the maximum line-to-line voltage upon which work will be done. (2) Insulated and insulating hand tools are tools rated and tested for the maximum line-to-line voltage upon which work will be done, and are manufactured and tested in accordance with ASTM F 1505, Standard Specification for Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools. (3) The use of N does not indicate that rubber insulating gloves and insulated and insulating hand tools are not required in all cases. Rubber insulating gloves and insulated and insulating hand tools may be required by 130.4,

130.8 (C) (7), and 130.8(D). (4) For equipment protected by upstream current limiting fuses with arcing fault current in their current limiting range (12 cycle fault clearing time or less), the hazard/risk category required may be reduced by one number. (5) For power systems up to 600 V the arc flash boundary was determined by using the following information: When 0.03 second trip time was used, that indicated MCC or panelboard equipment protected by a moldedcase circuit breaker. Working distance used was 18 in. (455 mm). Arc gap used was 32 mm for switchgear and 25 mm for MCC and protective device type 0 for all. When 0.33 or 0.5 second trip time was used, that indicated a LVPCB (drawout circuit breaker) in switchgear. Working distance was 24 in. (610 mm). Arc gap used was 32 mm and protective device type 0 for all. All numbers were rounded up or down depending on closest multiple of 5. (6) For power systems from 1 kV to 38 kV the arc flash boundary was determined by using the following 86 information: No maximum values were given in the 2009 edition of NFPA 70E for short-circuit current or operating time. Two sets of equations were performed: 35 kA AIC and 0.2 second operating time and 26 kA AIC and 0.2 2015 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) Arc Flash Hazard Identification for Alternating Current (ac) and Direct Current (dc) Systems Task Reading a panel meter while operating a meter switch Normal operation of a circuit breaker (CB), switch, contactor, or starter Equipment Condition* Any All of the following: The equipment is properly installed

The equipment is properly maintained All equipment doors are closed and secured All equipment covers are in place and secured There is no evidence of impending failure One or more of the following: The equipment is not properly installed The equipment is not properly maintained Equipment doors are open or not secured Equipment covers are off or not secured There is evidence of impending failure For ac systems: Work on energized conductors and circuit parts, including voltage testing For dc systems: Work on energized conductors and circuit parts of series-connected battery cells, including voltage testing Arc Flash PPE Required No No

Yes Any Yes Any Yes 87 2015 NFPA 70E Notes to Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) Note: Hazard identification is one component of risk assessment. Risk assessment involves a determination of the likelihood of occurrence of an incident resulting from a hazard that could cause injury or damage to health. The assessment of the likelihood of occurrence contained in this table does not cover every possible condition or situation. Where this table indicates that arc flash PPE is not required, an arc flash is not likely to occur. *The phrase properly installed, as used in this table, means that the equipment is installed in accordance with applicable industry codes and standards and the manufacturers recommendations. The phrase properly maintained, as used in this table means that the equipment has been maintained in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations and applicable industry codes and standards. The phrase evidence of impending failure, as used in this table, means that there is evidence of arcing, overheating, loose or bound equipment parts. Visible damage, deterioration, or other damage. 88 2015 NFPA 70E

Reading meter while operating switch Normal operation of CB, switch, contactor, or starter Voltage testing on individual battery cells or individual multi-cell units Removal or installation of covers for equipment not exposing bare, energized parts Removal of battery inter-cell connector covers Performing inspection (include thermography) outside RAB, not including opening covers/doors Work on <120 V, including opening doors/covers Insulated cable inspection without manipulation Remove/install cells in an open rack Maintaining battery cells in open rack Certain tasks for qualified Arc-resistant switchgear Activities Not Requiring Arc Flash PPE 89

2015 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b) Arc-Flash Hazard PPE Categories for Alternating Current (ac) Systems Equipment Panelboards or other equipment rated 240 V and below Parameters: Maximum of 25 kA short-circuit current available; maximum of 0.03 sec (2 cycles) faulty clearing time; working distance 455 mm (18 in.) Panelboards or other equipment rated >240 V and up to 600 V Parameters: Maximum of 25 kA short-circuit current available; maximum of 0.03 sec (2 cycles) faulty clearing time; working distance 455 mm (18 in.) 600-V class motor control centers (MCCs) Parameters: Maximum of 65 kA short-circuit current available; maximum of 0.03 sec (2 cycles) faulty clearing time; working distance 455 mm (18 in.) 600-V class motor control centers (MCCs) Parameters: Maximum of 42 kA short-circuit current available; maximum of 0.33 sec (20 cycles) faulty clearing time; working distance 455 mm (18 in.)

600-V class switchgear (with power circuit breakers or fused switches) and 600 V class switchboards Parameters: Maximum of 35 kA short-circuit current available; maximum of 0.5 sec (30 cycles) faulty clearing time; working distance 455 mm (18 in.) Arc Flash PPE Category Arc-Flash Boundary 1 486 mm (19 in.) 2 900 mm (3.0 ft.) 2 1.5 m (5.0 ft.) 4 4.3 m (14.0 ft) 4 6.0 m (20.0 ft.) Note: For equipment rated 600 volts and below, and protected by upstream current-limiting fuses or

current-limiting circuit breakers sized at 200 amperes or less, the arc flash PPE category can be reduced by one number but not below arc flash PPE category 1. 90 2012 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. Where selected in lieu of the incident energy analysis of 130.5(B)(1), Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) shall be used to determine the hazard/risk category and requirements for use of rubber insulating gloves and insulated and insulating hand tools for a task. The assumed maximum short-circuit current capacities and maximum fault clearing times for various tasks are listed in Table 130.7(C)(15)(a). For tasks not listed, or for power systems with greater than the assumed maximum shortcircuit current capacity or with longer than the assumed maximum fault clearing times, an incident energy analysis shall be required in accordance with 130.5. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. (B) Direct Current (dc) Equipment. Where selected in lieu of the incident

energy analysis of 130.5(B)(1), Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) shall be used to identify when arc flash PPE is required. Table 130.7(C)(15)(B) shall be used to determine the arc flash PPE category. The estimated maximum available short-circuit current, maximum arc duration, and working distances for various dc equipment are listed in Table 130.7(C)(15)(B). Changes reflect new approach to PPE tables. 91 2012 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. Where selected in lieu of the incident energy analysis of 130.5(B)(1), Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) shall be used to determine the hazard/risk category and requirements for use of rubber insulating gloves and insulated and insulating hand tools for a task. The assumed maximum short-circuit current capacities and maximum fault clearing times for various tasks are listed in Table 130.7(C)(15)(a). For tasks not listed, or for power systems with greater than the assumed maximum shortcircuit current capacity or with longer than the assumed maximum fault clearing times, an incident energy

analysis shall be required in accordance with 130.5. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15)(B) Direct Current (dc) Equipment. CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE An incident energy analysis shall be required in accordance with 130.5 for the following: 1) Tasks not listed in Table 130.7(C) (15)(A)(a) 2) Power systems with greater than the estimated maximum available short-circuit current 3) Power systems with longer than the maximum fault clearing times 4) Tasks with less than the minimum working distance. Changes reflect new approach to PPE tables.. 92 2012 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. Informational Note No. 1:The hazard/risk category, work tasks, and protective equipment identified in Table 130.7(C) (15)(a) were identified by a task group, and the hazard/risk category, protective

clothing, and equipment selected were based on the collective experience of the task group. The hazard/risk category protective clothing and equipment are generally based on determination of estimated exposure levels. In several cases, where the risk of an arc flash incident is considered low, very low, or extremely low by the task group, the hazard/risk category number has been reduced by 1, 2, or 3 numbers, respectively. 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15) Selection of Personal Protective Equipment When Required for Various Tasks. Informational Note No. 1:The arc flash PPE category, work tasks, and protective equipment provided in Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a), Table 130.7(C)(15) (A)(b), and Table 130.7(C)(15)(B) were identified and selected, based on the collective experience of the NFPA 70E Technical Committee. The arc flash PPE category of the protective clothing and equipment is generally based on determination of the estimated exposure level. Informational Note reflects changes to the task tables. 93

2012 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) Hazard/Risk Category Classifications and Use of Rubber Insulating Gloves and Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools Direct Current Equipment Hazard/Risk Rubber Insulated and Category a Insulating Insulating Tasks Performed on Energized Equipment Gloves Hand Tools Storage batteries, direct-current switchboards and other directcurrent supply sources >100 V <250 V Parameters: Voltage: 250 V Maximum arc duration and working distance: 2 sec @ 18 in. Work on energized conductors and circuit parts, including voltage testing where arcing current is >1 kA and <4 kA 1 Y Y Potential arc flash boundary using above parameters at 4 kA: 36 in. Work on energized conductors and circuit parts, including voltage testing where arcing current is >4 kA and <7 kA 1 Y Y Potential arc flash boundary using above parameters at 7 kA: 48 in. Work on energized conductors and circuit parts, including voltage testing where arcing current is >7 kA and <15 kA 1 Y Y Potential arc flash boundary using above parameters at 15 kA: 72 in.

Y: Yes (required). If acid exposure is possible, the clothing is required to be protected from acid and arc rated to the hazard according to ASTM F 1891 or equivalent and evaluated by ASTM F 1296 for acid protection. In clean rooms or other electrical installations, that do not permit leather protectors for arc flash exposure, ASTM F 496 is required to be followed for use of rubber insulating gloves without leather protectors, and the rubber gloves chosen are required to be arc rated to the potential exposure level of the hazard/risk category. a b 94 2015 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(B) Arc-Flash Hazard PPE Categories for Direct Current (dc) Systems Equipment Storage batteries, dc switchboards, and other dc supply sources 100 V > Voltage < 250 V Parameters: Voltage 250 V Maximum arc duration and working distance: 2 sec @ 455 mm (18 in.) Short-circuit current <4 kA 4 kA< short-circuit current <7kA 7 kA< Short-circuit current<15kA Arc Flash PPE Category 1 2 3 Arc-Flash Boundary

900 mm (3.0 ft.) 1.2 m (4.0 ft.) 1.8 m (6.0 ft.) Note: Apparel that can be expected to be exposed to electrolyte must meet both of the following conditions : 1) Be evaluated for electrolyte protection in accordance with ASTM F 1296, Standard Guide for Evaluating Chemical Protective Clothing 2) Be arc-rated in accordance with ASTM F 1891, Standard Specification for Arc Rated and Flame Resistant Rainwear, or equivalent. 95 2012 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) Hazard/Risk Category Classifications and Use of Rubber Insulating Gloves and Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools Direct Current Equipment. New Informational Notes 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15)(B) Direct Current (dc) Equipment. Informational Note No. 1: Short-circuit current, as used in this table, is determined from the dc power system maximum available short-circuit, including the effects of cables and any other impedances in the circuit Power system modeling is the best method to determine the available short-circuit current at the point of the arc. Battery

cell short-circuit current can be obtained from the battery manufacturer. See Informative Annex D.5 for the bass for table values and alternative methods to determine dc incident energy. Methods should be used with good engineering judgment. Informational Note to explain assumed short-circuit current values to use with the table. 96 2012 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) Hazard/Risk Category Classifications and Use of Rubber Insulating Gloves and Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools Direct Current Equipment. New Informational Notes 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(15)(B) Cont. Informational Note No. 2: The methods for estimating the dc arc flash incident energy that were used to determine the categories for this table are based on open-air incident energy calculations. Open-air calculations were used because many battery systems and other dc process systems are in open areas or rooms. If the specific task is within an enclosure, it would be prudent

to consider additional PPE protection beyond the value shown in th table. Research with ac arc flash has shown a multiplier of as much as 3X for ac-in-abox [508 mm (20 in.) cube] versus open air. Engineering judgment is required when reviewing the specific conditions of the equipment and task to be performed, including the dimensions of the enclosure and working distance involved. Informational Note to explain assumptions made to develop the table. 97 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(C)(16) Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment. Once the hazard/risk category has been identified from Table 130.7(C)(15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15)(b) (including associated notes) and the requirements of 130.7(C)(15), Table 130.7(C)(16) shall be used to determine the required PPE for the task. Table 130.7(C)(16) lists the requirements for protective clothing and other protective equipment based on Hazard/Risk Categories 0 through 4. This clothing and equipment shall be used when working within the arc flash boundary.

130.7(C)(16) Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment. Once the arc flash PPE category has been identified from Table 130.7(C)(15) (A)(a), or Table 130.7(C)(15)(B); Table 130.7(C)(16) shall be used to determine the required PPE for the task. Table 130.7(C)(16) lists the requirements for PPE based on PPE categories 1 through 4. This clothing and equipment shall be used when working within the arc flash boundary. Changes reflect elimination of category 0 and revisions to the task tables. 98 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(16) Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment. Included HRC 0 Table 130.7(C)(16) Protective Equipment (PPE). PPE 1-4 (No Category 0)

Changes reflect elimination of category 0. 99 2012 NFPA 70E 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(D) Other Protective Equipment. (1) Insulated Tools and Equipment. Employees shall use insulated tools or handling equipment, or both, when working inside the limited approach boundary of exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts where tools or handling equipment might make accidental contact. Table 130.7(C)(15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15) (b) provide further information for tasks that require insulated and insulating hand tools. Insulated tools shall be protected from damage to the insulating material. 130.7(D) Other Protective Equipment. (1) Insulated Tools and Equipment. Employees shall use insulated tools or handling equipment, or both, when working inside the restricted approach boundary of exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts where tools or handling equipment might make accidental contact. Table

130.7(C)(15)(a) and Table 130.7(C)(15) (b) provide further information for tasks that require insulated and insulating hand tools. Insulated tools shall be protected from damage to the insulating material. Moves shock hazard for qualified person to the restricted approach boundary. 100 2012 NFPA 70E 130.7(E) Alerting Techniques. (2) Barricades. Barricades shall be used in conjunction with safety signs where it is necessary to prevent or limit employee access to work areas containing energized conductors or circuit parts. Conductive barricades shall not be used where it might cause an electrical hazard. Barricades shall be placed no closer than the limited approach boundary given in Table 130.4(C)(a) and Table 130.4(C)(b). 2015 NFPA 70E 130.7(E) Alerting Techniques. (2) Barricades. Barricades shall be used in conjunction with safety signs where it is necessary to prevent or limit employee access to work areas containing energized conductors or circuit parts. Conductive barricades shall not be used where it might

increase the likelihood of exposure to an electrical hazard. Barricades shall be placed no closer than the limited approach boundary given in Table 130.4(D)(a) and Table 130.4(D)(b). Where the arc flash boundary is greater than the limited approach boundary, barricades shall not be placed closer than the arc flash boundary. Increases distance for barricade to the greater of LAB or 101 AFB. 2012 NFPA 70E 130.10 New Section 2015 NFPA 70E 130.10 Cutting or Drilling. Before cutting or drilling into equipment, floors, walls, or structural elements where a likelihood of contacting energized electrical lines or parts exists, the employer shall perform a risk assessment to: 1) Identify and mark the location of conductors, cables, raceways, or equipment, 2) Create an electrically safe work condition, and 3) Identify safe work practices and PPE to be used. New section addressing drilling into surfaces that

might contain energized conductors. 102 Chapter 2 2012 NFPA 70E 205.7 Guarding of Energized Conductors and Circuit Parts. Enclosures shall be maintained to guard against accidental contact with energized conductors and circuit parts and other electrical hazards. 2015 NFPA 70E 205.7 Guarding of Energized Conductors and Circuit Parts. Enclosures shall be maintained to guard against accidental contact with energized conductors and circuit parts and other electrical hazards. Covers and doors shall be in place with all associated fasteners and latches secured. Adds requirement to keep equipment in safe condition while energized.

104 2012 NFPA 70E 205.14 Flexible Cords and Cables. (3) New Item 2015 NFPA 70E 205.14 Flexible Cords and Cables. (3) Repair and Replacement. Cords and cord caps for portable electrical equipment shall be repaired and replaced by qualified personnel and checked for proper polarity grounding, and continuity prior to returning to service. New requirement that qualified persons repair equipment that will be used by unqualified persons. 105 2012 NFPA 70E 205.15 Overhead Line Clearances. New Section 2015 NFPA 70E 205.15 Overhead Line Clearances. For overhead electrical lines under the employers

control, grade elevation shall be maintained to preserve no less than the minimum designed vertical and horizontal clearances necessary to minimize risk of unintentional contact. New requirement intended to reduce the number of electrocutions due to contact with overhead lines. 106 2012 NFPA 70E 210.5 Protective Devices Informational Note: Failure to properly maintain protective devices can have an adverse effect on the arc flash hazard analysis incident energy values. 2015 NFPA 70E 210.5 Protective Devices Informational Note: Improper or inadequate maintenance can result in increased opening time of the overcurrent protective device, thus increasing the incident energy. Revised informational note clarifies the importance of maintaining protective devices.

107 2012 NFPA 70E 225.1 Fuses. Fuses shall be maintained free of breaks or cracks in fuse cases, ferrules, and insulators. Fuse clips shall be maintained to provide adequate contact with fuses. Fuseholders for current-limiting fuses shall not be modified to allow the insertion of fuses that are not current-limiting. 2015 NFPA 70E 225.1 Fuses. Fuses shall be maintained free of breaks or cracks in fuse cases, ferrules, and insulators. Fuse clips shall be maintained to provide adequate contact with fuses. Fuseholders for currentlimiting fuses shall not be modified to allow the insertion of fuses that are not currentlimiting. Non-current limiting fuses shall not be modified to allow their insertion into current-limiting fuseholders. Added language to exand requirement to both fuses and fuse holders. 108

2012 NFPA 70E 250.4 Test Instruments. New Section. 2015 NFPA 70E 250.4 Test Instruments. Test Instruments and associated test leads used to verify the absence or presence of voltage shall be maintained to assure functional integrity. The maintenance program shall include functional verification as described in 110.4(A)(5). Add test instruments to the maintenance program, in addition to functional checks at each use. 109 Chapter 3 2012 NFPA 70E Article 310. 2015 NFPA 7l0E Article 310 ONLY EDITORIAL AND GLOBAL CHANGES.

Revises language for grammar correction and consistency with other changes in standard. 111 2012 NFPA 70E 320.2 Prospective Fault Current. The highest level of fault current that can occur at a point on a circuit. This is the fault current that can flow in the event of a zero impedance short circuit and if no protection devices operate. Clarifies language. 2015 NFPA 70E 320.2 Prospective ShortCircuit Current. The highest level of fault current that could theoretically occur at a point on a circuit. This is the fault current that can flow in the event of a zero impedance short circuit and if no protection devices operate. 112 2012 NFPA 70E 320.3 General Safety Hazards. New Subsection. Replaces (1) and moves each subsection down one position.

2015 NFPA 70E 320.3 General Safety Hazards. (1) Battery Risk Assessent Prior to any work on a battery system, a risk assessment shall be performed to identify the chemical, electrical shock, and rc flash hazards and assess the rislks associated with the type of tasks to be performed. New requirement to perform task-specific battery risk assessment before beginning work. 113 2012 NFPA 70E 320.3(B)(2) Batteries with Solid or Immobilized Electrolyte. The following protective equipment shall be available to employees performing any type of service on a nonspillable battery with solid or immobilized electrolyte: (1) Goggles or face shield appropriate for the electrical hazard (2) Gloves appropriate for the electrical and chemical hazards (3) Protective clothing appropriate for electrical hazard.

2015 NFPA 70E 320.3(B)(2) Activities That Do Not Include Handling of Electrolyte. Employees performing any activity not involving the handling of electrolyte shall wear safety glasses. Informational Note: Battery maintenance activities usually do not involve handling electrolyte. Batteries wit solid electrolyte (such as most lithium batteries: or immobilized electrolyte (such as valveregulated lead acid batteries) preset little or no electrolyte hazard. Most modern density meters expose a worker to a quantity of electrolyte too minute to considered hazardous, if at all. Such work would not be considered handling electrolyte. However, if specific gravity readings are taken using a bulb hydrometer, the risk of exposure is higher this could be considered to be handling electrolyte, and the requirements of 320.3(B)(1) would apply. Reduces restrictions when no liquid electrolyte is present. 114 2012 NFPA 70E 320.3 (C) Testing, Maintenance, and Operation. (1) Battery ShortCircuit Current. The battery manufacturer shall be consulted regarding the sizing of

the battery short-circuit protection and for battery short-circuit current values. 2015 NFPA 70E 320.3 (C) Testing, Maintenance, and Operation. (1) Battery ShortCircuit Current. The battery manufacturer shall be consulted regarding the sizing of the battery short-circuit protection and for battery short-circuit current values. Removed requirement to contact manufacturer because not enforceable in all cases. 115 Article 330 2012 NFPA 70E 330.3 (C) Proof of Qualification. Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be available and in possession of the operator at all times.

2015 NFPA 70E 330.3 (C) Proof of Qualification. Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be readily available. and in possession of the operator at all times. Removed requirement that could become a safety hazard. 117 Article 340 Only Editorial Changes Article 350 NO TECHNICAL ADDITIONS!!! Questions? Thank You!

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