Hybrid Vehicles Aims and Objectives Aim To be able to describe the operation of a vehicles hybrid system Objectives To recognize the need for alternative fuels To be able to describe the operation of a hybrid system To be able to comment on the use of hybrid systems
Hybrid Vehicles Why do we need alternative fuels? We need alternative fuels as our supply of fossil fuels (that make petrol and diesel) are becoming less and less. To make an effort to reduce our carbon footprint. To reduce the amount of harmful gases produced by vehicles. Hybrid Vehicles Question
In pairs discuss some other reasons why we might benefit from alternative fuels. Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Ethanol Reduces the green house gases produced by vehicles, is commonly mixed with petrol to run motor vehicles:E10 10% Ethanol 90% Petrol E85 85% Ethanol 15% Petrol (no difference in performance to the two)
Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Ethanol Plus points Ethanol Negative points Lower Emissions More resistance to engine knock
Added vehicle cost is minimal Flex fuel vehicle Lower energy content Limited Availability Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Bio Diesel
Is made up of crops, or even old restaurant oil Can be used on its own or blended with petrol Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Bio Diesel Plus points Bio Diesel Negative points
Can be utilised in most diesel engines Less air pollutants Biodegradable Non-toxic Safer to handle May not be approved by the manufacture Lower fuel economy
More nitrogen oxide Not suitable in lower temperature Concerns over engine durability Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Natural Gas Can be used to fuel the car as a gas or a liquid Can be utilised within duel fuel vehicles
Stored in high pressure tanks (therefore two fuelling systems are required within the vehicle) Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Natural Gas Plus points Natural Gas Negative points
60-90% less smoke producing emissions 30-40% less Green House gasses emitted Less expensive Fewer miles per tank Less available Limited to the type of vehicles it is
available on Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Propane LPG Clean burning fossil fuel Contains fewer toxins Must have a separate fuelling system for the two fuels (petrol and LPG)
Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Propane Plus points Propane Negative points Fewer toxins and smog emitting pollutants Less expensive
Not currently readily available on newer models Fewer miles available per tank of fuel Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Hydrogen Hydrogen is been readily looked at as an alternative for petrol/diesel.
Environmentally friendly fuel, however, there are challenges that stop this fuel being currently widely used. Hybrid Vehicles Alternative Fuels Hydrogen Plus points Hydrogen Negative points
Produced from several sources No air pollutants produced Produces only NOX Expensive Fuel cells can be expensive Lower energy density then fuel Hybrid Vehicles
Alternative Fuels Questions Give two advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel? Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles
Can be split into two sections:Series and Parallel Series The vehicles Engine will drive the generator which in turn powers the vehicle. Parallel Engine and motor can be used to drive the vehicle, this system employs brake energy regeneration. This is the most favoured amongst manufactures. Hybrid Vehicles
Question What are the two sections that hybrid vehicles can be split into? Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles The main components include:Motor High Voltage Battery Power drive Unit DC converter (direct current)
Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Uses a Power Split system 1)the high voltage battery provides power to the motor to drive the wheels 2)Wheels are driven by engine to power splitting device. The generator is driven by planetary gears to provide the motor with electricity to drive the wheels 3)During de-acceleration energy is recovered at the wheels, the energy in
converted to mechanical energy to charge the vehicles high voltage battery Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Power Splitter Is a epicycle gear box, that transmits energy in main components. Hybrid Vehicles
Toyota Prius 5 Operating Modes Hybrid Vehicles Question Name one of the five modes that hybrid vehicles use. Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles
Toyota Prius Start up Under normal conditions the motor will start the engine Under poor start up conditions the 12v starting system will start the vehicle Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Acceleration
DC is converted to AC via the power drive unit This is used as supply to the motor It is also used to supplement engine output Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Cruise Engine drives the motor (which acts as a generator)
The output current drives the motor Converted to 12v DC supplies the vehicles charging system Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Deceleration Motor is driven by the wheels under deceleration conditions, regeneration takes place
Power drive unit converts AC current to DC current to charge the batter module. Some energy is then used to charge the 12v electrical system. If ABS senses wheel lock up, a signal is sent to the ECU and re-generation stops to prevent interference. Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid Vehicles Toyota Prius Idle
The flow of energy is similar to that of cruising If the charge of the battery is low, the ECU will raise the vehicles idle speed to compensate for this. Hybrid Vehicles Summary - have we ? Recognized the need for alternative fuels ? Can we describe the operation of a hybrid system ? Are we able to comment on the use of hybrid system ?
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