Group 18: The Nobel gases Dr. Nouf H. Alotaibi Group 18: The Nobel gases The Nobel gases The noble gases, also known as the inert gases or rare gases, are located in Group VIII A of the periodic table. Group VIII is sometimes called Group 0. This group is a subset of the nonmetals. The noble gases are; helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) , radon (Rn) and Oganesson (Og). The elements have a [core]ns2 np6 electron configuration with a complete octet. (n is the period number) Their closed shell electron configuration makes them have a very low reactivity. Group 18: The Nobel gases The Nobel gases Noble gases have a full valence shell.
The noble gases are the smallest elements in their respective periods, with the highest ionization energies. Noble gases have very low melting and boiling points. Only Kr, Xe, and Rn are known to form compounds. Xe is the most reactive noble gas and exhibits all even oxidation states from +2 to +8. Very low electronegativities No color, odor, or flavor under ordinary conditions
Nonflammable At low pressure, they will conduct electricity and fluoresce Group 18: The Nobel gases The Nobel gases All the noble gases occur in the atmosphere as monatomic gases. They are monatomic, which means they exist as individual atoms. Most other gases are diatomic. Together they make up 1% (by mass) of the atmosphere. Argon is the third most abundant gas in the atmosphere after N and O.
Sources of the Noble Gases All of the noble gases except He and Rn are obtained by the fractional distillation of liquid air. The major source of helium is from the cryogenic separation of natural gas. Radon, a radioactive noble gas, is produced from the radioactive decay of heavier elements, including radium, thorium, and uranium. Element 118 (Og) is a man-made radioactive element, produced by striking a target with accelerated particles. Group 18: The Nobel gases Uses of other noble gases
The noble gases are used to form inert atmospheres, to protect specimens, and to prevent chemical reactions (to prevent oxidation). Argon is also used to fill some types of light bulbs, where it conducts heat away from the filament. Krypton gives an intense white light when an electrical current is passed through it and it is used in airports for there runway lights used: In lasers for eye surgery, to stop bleeding on the retina. In lighthouses and other types of lamps. Xenon is used:
In various types of electron tubes, lamps, lasers and in high speed photographic flash tubes Radon is used: To treat cancer by radiotherapy, because it is radioactive. However, because radon is radioactive, it is also an environmental hazard. Group 18: The Nobel gases The Atomic and Physical Properties Atomic mass, boiling point, and atomic radii INCREASE down a group in the periodic table.
The first ionization energy DECREASES down a group in the periodic table. The noble gases have the largest ionization energies, reflecting their chemical inertness. Down Group 18, atomic radius and interatomic forces INCREASE resulting
in an INCREASED melting point, boiling point, energy of vaporization, and solubility. The INCREASE in density down the group is correlated with the INCREASE in atomic mass. Because noble gases outer shells are full, they are extremely stable, tending not to form chemical bonds and having a small tendency to gain or lose electrons. Group 18: The Nobel gases Selected Properties of Group 8 A Elements Group 18: The Nobel gases Compounds of the Nobel Gases (Reactivity): The elements have a complete octet, predict that there would be no chemistry for the noble gases.
However, numerous group 18 compounds are known, although they may be very unstable and explosive. He and Ne are chemically inert and they do not form any compounds. Their chemical inertness is due to very high ionization energy, zero electron affinity and the absence of vacant d-orbitals in valence shell. Ar, Kr and Xe will show some reactivity due to low ionization potentials and presence of vacant d-orbitals in valence shell. Xe is more reactive than Ar and Kr due to it's low ionisation energy. Radon is radioactive and it will not show chemical reactivity. Group 18: The Nobel gases
Compounds of the Nobel Gases (Reactivity): Krypton forms only one known stable neutral molecule KrF 2. Xe shows tendency to lose electrons in many of it's reactions. Therefore, Xe combines with only more electronegative elements like F and O or electronegative groups. Xe does not combine with less electronegative elements like Cl 2 or N2. Group 18: The Nobel gases The Elements (Xenon) Xenon is unique for being the first noble gas element to be synthesized into a compound.
Discovered on 1898 by Sir William Ramsay. Xenon is present to a small extent in the atmosphere (less than one ppm by volume). Metallic xenon is produced by applying several hundred kilobars of pressure. In 1962 the first noble gas compound was produced by Neil Bartlett, combining xenon, platinum and fluorine. It is now possible to produce xenon compounds in which the oxidation states range from +2 to +8. Most of the known xenon compounds contain the strongly reducing fluorine or oxygen atoms. Group 18: The Nobel gases
Xenon Compounds and their Molecular Structure Fluorine is the only element that directly reacts with Xenon . Xenon-fluorine compounds XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6 Preparation : By the direct reaction of elements under appropriate experimental conditions. Properties: They are readily hydrolysed even by traces of water. 673K, 1bar 873K, 7bar 573K, 60-70bar Group 18: The Nobel gases Xenon Compounds and their Molecular Structure Xenon Halides are reactive with other compounds such as water. XeF2+3H2O XeO3+ 6HF
The Xe has a total of 8 outside shell electrons while the Fluorine 7 valence electrons. Xe's outside shell electrons are very far away from the center, therefore Xenon cannot possibly attract all of the electrons. Fluorine is smaller, therefore is has a stronger positive attraction to the few electrons it has left. Fluorine is the only element that reacts with Xe because it is the most electronegative. In other words, it is the only element that is strong enough to pull electrons out of the stable xenon. Group 18: The Nobel gases Xenon Compounds and their Molecular Structure
Xenon-oxygen compounds XeO3 XeOF4 and XeO2F2 XeO3 Hydrolysis of XeF4 and XeF6 with water gives XeO3. 6XeF4 + 12 H2O 4Xe + 2XeO3 + 24 HF + 3 O2 XeF6 + 3 H2O XeO3 + 6 HF XeO3 is a colourless explosive solid and has a pyramidal molecular structure sp3 Hybridization Group 18: The Nobel gases Xenon Compounds and their Molecular Structure XeOF4 and XeO2F2 Partial hydrolysis of XeF6 gives oxyfluorides, XeOF4 and XeO2F2. XeF6 + H2O XeOF4 + 2 HF Xenon oxytetrafluoride
XeF6 + 2 H2O XeO2F2 + 4HF Xenon dioxydifluoride XeOF4 is a colourless volatile liquid and has a square pyramidal molecular structure Square pyramidal Group 18: The Nobel gases F Xe F O O sp3d Hybridization XeO2F2
sp3d2 Hybridization XeOF4 Group 18: The Nobel gases Structures of several known xenon compounds
Radioactivity. Radioactive decay is the disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus into one or more different nuclides.. After . radioactive decay, the element changes into a . different isotope . of the . same element . or into an entirely...
MSF, ESSR, Logbook, LLP etc.) Talks in progress re: completing a draft version pre-ARCP date Document Store Upload area for: any additional documents (eg. old logbook summaries) **But cannot link directly to curriculum, need to go via Personal Activity **...
American Psychiatric Association: manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. 2010. Practice Guideline for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders, 2nd edition. American Journal of Psychiatry . 2006; 164-suppl A5-A124. Sigmon SC, Dunn KE, et al.
Clock Synchronization Ronilda Lacson, MD, SM Introduction Accurate reliable time is necessary for financial and legal transactions, transportation and distribution systems and many other applications involving distributed resources For distributed internet applications, accuracy and reliability of a clock device is...
Aims of this presentation: to help students understand the difference between shruti (that which is 'heard' or perceived) and smriti (that which is 'remembered' or inferred) the two categories that cover sacred writings in Hinduism. Shruti are generally believed to...
Ethics and the early childhood educator: Using the NAEYC code. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Fox, L., & Garrison, S. (2005). Helping children learn to manage their own behavior. What Works Brief, 7. Center on...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!