Texture Mapping Objectives Introduce Mapping Methods Texture Mapping Environment Mapping Bump Mapping Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 2 The Limits of Geometric
Modeling Although graphics cards can render over 10 million polygons per second, that number is insufficient for many phenomena Clouds Grass Terrain Skin Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 3
Modeling an Orange Consider the problem of modeling an orange (the fruit) Start with an orange-colored sphere Too simple Replace sphere with a more complex shape Does not capture surface characteristics (small dimples) Takes too many polygons to model all the dimples Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009
4 Modeling an Orange (2) Take a picture of a real orange, scan it, and paste onto simple geometric model This process is known as texture mapping Still might not be sufficient because resulting surface will be smooth Need to change local shape Bump mapping Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009
5 Three Types of Mapping Texture Mapping Uses images to fill inside of polygons Environment (reflection mapping) Uses a picture of the environment for texture maps Allows simulation of highly specular surfaces Bump mapping
Emulates altering normal vectors during the rendering process Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 6 Texture Mapping geometric model texture mapped Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009
7 Environment Mapping Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 8 Bump Mapping Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009
9 Where does mapping take place? Mapping techniques are implemented at the end of the rendering pipeline Very efficient because few polygons make it past the clipper Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 10
Is it simple? Although the idea is simple---map an image to a surface---there are 3 or 4 coordinate systems involved 2D image 3D surface Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 11 Coordinate Systems Parametric coordinates
May be used to model curves and surfaces Texture coordinates Used to identify points in the image to be mapped Object or World Coordinates Conceptually, where the mapping takes place Window Coordinates Where the final image is really produced Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 12
Texture Mapping parametric coordinates texture coordinates world coordinates Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 window coordinates 13 Mapping Functions Basic problem is how to find the maps
Consider mapping from texture coordinates to a point a surface Appear to need three functions x = x(s,t) y = y(s,t) z = z(s,t) (x,y,z) t But we really want to go the other way
s Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 14 Backward Mapping We really want to go backwards
Given a pixel, we want to know to which point on an object it corresponds Given a point on an object, we want to know to which point in the texture it corresponds Need a map of the form s = s(x,y,z) t = t(x,y,z) Such functions are difficult to find in general Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009
15 Two-part mapping One solution to the mapping problem is to first map the texture to a simple intermediate surface Example: map to cylinder Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 16
Cylindrical Mapping parametric cylinder x = r cos 2 u y = r sin 2u z = v/h maps rectangle in u,v space to cylinder of radius r and height h in world coordinates s=u t=v maps from texture space Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 17
Spherical Map We can use a parametric sphere x = r cos 2u y = r sin 2u cos 2v z = r sin 2u sin 2v in a similar manner to the cylinder but have to decide where to put the distortion Spheres are used in environmental maps Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009
18 Box Mapping Easy to use with simple orthographic projection Also used in environment maps Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 19 Second Mapping Map from intermediate object to actual object
Normals from intermediate to actual Normals from actual to intermediate Vectors from center of intermediate actual intermediate Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics 5E Addison-Wesley 2009 20