Global Justice Education Upside Down World NUIG DE
Global Justice Education Upside Down World NUIG DE Day 2015 Vicky Donnelly [email protected]
Development Education Quiz Which country has the lowest representation for women in parliament: Rwanda, Ireland or Afghanistan? Which country beginning with S______ only granted full voting rights to all women in 1989? At just over 1%, which country has the lowest acceptance rate of refugee applications in the EU? What is the average life expectancy in Ireland? UN estimate cost of providing clean water for all: $30 billion. How much is spent annually on bottled water? $__
True or False: The Developed World throws out enough food every day to feed every hungry person in the world. What was the most valuable traded item in 15th centuary Timbuktu? No Easy Answers Ireland (16%) has the lowest representation for women in parliament: Rwanda (64%) ; Afghanistan (28%) http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SG.GEN.PARL.ZS Switzerland granted full voting rights to women in all local Canton elections by 1989.
At just over 1%, which country has the lowest acceptance rate of refugee applications in the EU? Ireland Average life expectancy in Ireland is 80.5 years. For Traveller men it is 61, and 70 for Traveller women. http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/travellers-life-expectancy-still-lags-far-behind-26677596.html UN estimate cost of providing clean water for all: $30 billion. $ 100bn spent annually on bottled water. True three times over: According to Raj Patel, author of Stuffed and Starved, the Developed World throws out three times enough food every day to feed every hungry person in the world. Books were the most valuable traded item in 15th century Timbuktu.
Founded in the 5th century, by the15th and 16th centuries Timbuktu was an important centre for the diffusion of Islamic culture with the University of Sankore, with 180 schools and 25,000 students. It was also a crossroads and an important market place where the trading of manuscripts was negotiated. 80:20 80:20 80:20
Upside Down World Development Education Addresses global concerns, such as the root causes of poverty, inequality, conflict and environmental issues Assumes a level of interconnectedness and
involves an analysis of power Builds critical awareness, recognising and learning from diverse forms of knowledge Encourages informed solidarity action If the connections between power relations, knowledge production and inequalities are overlooked, the result is often education practices
that are ethnocentric (projecting one view as universal), depoliticised (foreclosing their own ideological location), paternalistic (seeking affirmation of superiority through the provision of help to other people), and hegemonic (using and benefiting from unequal relations of power). Vanessa de Oliverira Andreotti Introduction to Learning to Read the World: Teaching and Learning about Global Citizenship and
International Development in Post-Primary Schools. Audrey Bryan and Meliosa Bracken (2011) Colonial Legacies When Belgium left the Congo, a total of three Congolese people held positions of responsibility in government. When Great Britain left Tanzania, the county had but two engineers and twelve doctors. When Spain left Western Sahara, the country had one doctor,
one lawyer and one specialist in commerce. When Portugal left Mozambique, the county had a 99% illiteracy rate, not a single high school graduate, and no university. (Galaeno, Mirrors, pg.329) Underdevelopment
Legitimising Exploitation and the invention of Race (Chinua Achebes good excuse) It is always useful to think badly about people one has exploited or plans to exploit. Professor James W. Loewen (1995): Lies My Teacher Told Me The New Press: New York Our analysis of the problem determines the
solutions we pursue. Focus on symptoms or root causes? Samir Amin: http://monthlyreview .org/2006/03/01/the-millennium-de velopment-goals-a-critique-from-the-south
http://www.stwr.org/poverty-inequality/critiquing-th e-millennium-development-goals.html#Sogge Activity: Language of Development Critical Discourse Analysis (kind of) What terms do we use to describe this 80:20 divide? First World / Third World Developed / Developing Rich/Poor
Language is part of how we bring the world into being, and how that world is reproduced Analysis of text (written or spoken) Discourse practice production, distribution and consumption. Macro-analysis how broader societal context affects our engagement with the text. See the work of Ruth Wodak for (much) more on CDA. Activity: Language of Development
First World / Third World Developed / Developing [Under Developed; Undeveloped] Rich / Poor Global South / Global North Majority / Minority World Activity: Language of Development
What images or associations come to mind? What is being measured what are the criteria? What values and assumptions lie behind these terms? Do you know the origins of these terms? How do the labels like developed/underdeveloped affect social relations? Terminology
First World / Third World Cold war politics decolonisation third way Context of Anti-Colonial struggles Cold War interests Bretton Woods world economic order D ev elo pe d / D e vel opi ng
US President Trumans inaugural speech reference to the underdeveloped world set in motion the imposition of a linear, universal model of development. Traditionally measured in GDP (Gross Domestic Product goods and services produced in a country) and GNP (GDP + net earnings from overseas) per capita. Suggests a universal model of development...that we are all on, and should follow, the one path.
Suggests that some regions have arrived while others are only catching up. Strong associations with wealth markers - growth =development. How many Planet Earths would be needed? Terminology Rich / Poor
Poverty [is] used to define whole peoples, not according to what the are and want to be but according to what they lack and are expected (by the Rich) to become. There [is] no mention of the idea that poverty might result from oppression and thus demand liberation. Or that a culture of sufficiency might be essential for long term survival. Or even that a culture might direct its energies towards spheres other than the economic. Wolfgang Sachs
(1999) Measuring Development Rich / Poor Wealth measures Assumption that economic wealth = Development Measures of Absolute poverty based on $1.25 per day (World Bank) 1.4 billion people.
Who is an average person? Takes account of inequality? Counts the informal economy or unpaid work? Human Development Index Aggregate measure IHDI (2010) Life expectancy Education (literacyschool completion 2010)
GNI. Purchasing power in Parity Dollars (2010) More focussed on people Social Justice perspectives Terminology Global North / Global South 1980s attempt to find a less value-laden term than First world/Third World or Developed/Developing.
While it may serve that function, it is also geographically skewed (places Australia and New Zealand are in the Global North) Apolitical: suggests that poverty may be an accident of geography rather than an outcome of exploitation Terminology
Majority / Minority World 1980s attempt to find a less value-laden term than First world/Third World or Developed/Developing. Potentially a more democratic term in that it draws attention to the demographics of global inequality.
Terminology Vandana Shiva insists on stripping away the neutral language of science to reveal Third World development policy as the global twin of the industrial revolution. (Staying Alive, 2010) Poverty is political. Politics is relational.
Developing countries is the name that experts use to designate countries trampled by someone elses development. Eduardo Galeano Marcus Arruda: Brazilian economist and
champion of popular education. Our fundamental confusion between GROWTH and
Developmen t Endless Growth We live within a system of transformation and of self-expansion. In order to pursue the [mythical] goal of endless growth, it must constantly seek out new sites of accumulation, and commodify forms of social activity and processes that previously existed outside of the market.
Immanuel Wallerstein (2011) Historical Capitalism London: Verso. Conor McCabe (UCD, School of Social Justice) Economics As If People Really Matter http://dublinopinion.com/2013/02/18/economics-as-if-people-really-mattered-galway-learning-circle-19-feb-10-april-introduction/ a system in fundamental conflict with nature. (Clow 1994; Foster 2002) (pg. 215) in Veltmeyer, Henry (ed) 2011 The Critical Development Studies Handbook: Tools for Change London:Pluto Press
AntiDevelopment Development created a space where only certain things could be said, or even imagined. Escobar (1997) Development discourse and practice shaped by the West in its interests cannot be an emancipatory process for the South as it
erases local social and cultural contexts and replaces them with a globalised norm. 80:20 How do we describe and define development? What are our criteria?
5 : 50 : 500 5 : 50 : 500 $5bn voluntary overseas aid to Global South 5 : 50 : 500
$5 billion voluntary overseas aid to Global South $50 billion official overseas aid 5 : 50 : 500 $500 billion
79% Mulitnational traders and Retailers TAX JUSCICE The Swiss branch of HSBC bank cost Tanzania, Senegal
and the Ivory Coast over 30% of their national health budgets. In 2011, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa estimated the cost of IFFs to the continent at $50 billion each year
http://www.euractiv.com/sections/development-policy/ swiss-leaks-catastrophic-african-economies-312035 DEBT JUSTICE Theres a hole in the bucket The worlds poorest countries pay more that $100 million in
debt repayments each day. Debt: Mad, bad and dangerous The Bataan nuclear power plant in the Phillipines was built by the US company Westinghouse On an earthquake fault-line
At the foot of a volcano 30 years on, the plant remains unused. Westinghouse got paid and the Filipino people had to pay $1.5 billion debt for the plants construction
Did we ever live above our means? No. Well, it seems someone else did it for us. Real life, being rather more messy 8: 105: 790 5 : 50 : 500
www.developomenteducation.ie Tax Justice Network Estimates there may be $20 trillion hidden in tax havens, like the Caymen Islands, and
Remittances $167 bn 5 : 50 : 500 www.developomenteducation.ie There Is No Alternative We have reached a stage where it is easier
to think of the total annihilation of humanity than to imagine a change in the organisation of a manifestly unjust and destructive society. What can we do? John Holloway (2010,pg. 7) TINA
There Is No Alternative Estimated cost of achieving the MDGS in all countries (projected 2015): http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/reports/costs_benefits2.htm
$189 Billion Estimated cost of bailing out private banking losses in Europe (October 2007 DEC 2013) $721 Billion
Estimated cost of achieving the MDGS in all countries (projected 2015) $189 Billion http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/reports/costs_benefits2.htm
Estimated cost of bailing out private banking losses in Europe (October 2007 DEC 2013) $721 Billion
Michael Taft: Notes On the Front 15 January 2013 http://notesonthefront.typepad.com/politicaleconomy/2013/01/with-considerable-speculation-about-an-impending-deal-on-bank-debt-with-the-taoiseach-and-the-german-chancellor-jointly-sta.html Ireland makes up 0.9 %of the EU population The Irish economy makes up 1.2 % of EU GDP
People in Ireland have paid 42 % of the total cost of the European banking crisis No Alternatives? NAMA: 192 debtors with debts of 62bn a relatively small number of people chasing the same
assetslike a Ponzi scheme. Over borrowing and over lending. While the economy was growing at 8 or 9% per annum, bank lending grew by 35 45% Brendan Mc Donagh, Chief Executive of NAMA, in evidence to the PAC 26/10/11 Quoted by Conor McCabe http://www.slideshare.net/conormccabe/irish-water-bond-and-class-in-ireland
Terminology Room for more Always evolving and tends to reflect dominant values and interests. Some suggestions from previous groups for alternaives: Colonised and Coloniser High Consumption and Low Consumption
Developing and Over-Developed Whose Voice Are We Listening To? Third World Network: provides reports and analysis on a range of development issues; trade justice, climate change,. You can find information about all the latest international climate change negotiations. http://www.twnside.org.sg/
Focus on the Global South: promotes deglobalisation and building alternatives. Research and analytical writing, debates, seminars and conferences, education and study programs, network building, international solidarity and fact-finding missions, direct action and parliamentary testimonials, social forums, joint campaigns and media. http://focusweb.org Kicking Away the Ladder (2002) Bad Samaritans (2007)
Ha Joon Chang tackles the double standards that deny developing countries the opportunity to apply the same interventionist policies that, he argues all major developed countries used to build their wealth.
Criticises the WTO, IMF and World Bank for maintaining this line. Alternative Perspectives on Growth Vandana Shivas talk Growth = Poverty explores the limits of growth, the flawed abstraction of GDP, and alternative ways of measuring human development.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7M3WJQbnHKc Southern Alternatives series: Views of 8 activists and thinkers from the Global South, from the Philippines to Colombia, Zimbabwe to India, detailing a vision of an alternative European trade policy, based on principles of sustainability, democracy, flexibility, human rights, transparency and poverty eradication. Covers access to water, agriculture, raw materials, and regional integration and more. Full Report: http://comhlamh.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/AlternativetradebriefingWEB.pdf
Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How there Is Another Way For Africa (2009) Dambisa Moyo argues that aid reduces millions of people, in the Wests eyes, to a childlike state of beggary.
Links to Corruption Need to concentrate on Trade and Investment policies.* *From perspective of Goldman Sachs. Wangari Maathai It's the little things citizens do. That's what will make the difference.
My little thing is planting trees. Resources Some of the Resources mentioned in this workshop: Professor James W. Loewen (1995): Lies My Teacher Told Me (Chapter 2: The True Importance of Christopher Columbus). The New Press: New York Eduardo Galaeno : Upside Down World; Mirrors 5:50:500 www.developmenteducation.ie
Aamer Rahman (Fear of a Brown Planet) - Reverse Racism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dw_mRaIHb-M&feature=share Walter Rodney (1982): How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Howard University Press: Washington, DC Basil Davidson (1966): Africa in History, Phoenix Press: London Focus: Action for Global Justice. www.comhlamh.org Thomas Sankara speech at OAU: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gx2PoOY3ADo Through Other Eyes: Learning to Read the World www.throughothereyes .org.uk (Open access study programme) http://myuminfo.umanitoba.ca/Documents/2233/toe.pdf
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2010/aug/16/haiti-france Henry Veltmeyer (Ed) The Critical Development Studies Handbook Wealth Inequality in America, Politizane.: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPKKQnijnsM Opens Space for Dialogue and Enquiry http://movement.deeep.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/OSDEresourcepack.pdf WORLDWISE: LINKING AND LEARNING: A CLASSROOM TRANSITION UNIT RESOURCE PACK http ://www.developmenteducation.ie/resources/development-education/linking-and-learning-a-classroom-transition-unit-resourcepack.html
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