BUDDHISM Location Buddhism originated in India around 500
BUDDHISM Location Buddhism originated in India around 500 BCE. About 9-10% of the worlds population today is estimated to be Buddhist. Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world, though most of its followers are found in Southern and Eastern Asia. Distribution of Buddhists Around the World
Who is Buddha? Siddhartha Guatama was a prince who led a life of privilege; however, once exposed to the outside world, he was troubled by the poverty and suffering that he saw around him.
After studying the unhappiness of man, he finally thought he understood what had to be done. After being exposed to poverty and suffering for the first time, he became a monk and traveled around India for years, hoping to find a solution to mans suffering.
He felt that people could find peace only if they could reject greed and desire. He was called Buddha, which means The Enlightened One. Early statue of Buddha that is now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art Sarnath where Buddha gave his first sermon.
Basic Beliefs of Buddhism Buddha taught that there were Four Noble Truths in life (these were basic tenets that teach suffering exists in the world and humans must try move beyond it). Nirvana is the ultimate goal of Buddhists.
It is a state of enlightenment or understanding where one can have happiness and peace. In order to achieve Nirvana, a person must follow The
Middle Way (Eightfold Path 8 rules for conduct). Buddhists also believe in reincarnation, a cycle of birth and rebirth, where ones behavior in this life determines what one becomes in the next life. Basic Beliefs of Buddhism The Buddhists holy book is called the Tripitaka. It contains all of Buddhas teachings. Buddhists do not worship a god but rather Buddha by thanking him for his teachings and
reading the Tripitaka to become more enlightened. Buddhism is sometimes considered a philosophy instead of a religion because Buddha is thought of as a great teacher, and not a god. What is The Middle Way? 1. Try to recognize the truth
2. Try to avoid evil actions and bad people 3. Do not say things that hurt others 4.
Respect other people and their belongings 5. Choose a job that does no harm to others 6. Do not think evil thoughts 7.
Avoid excitement or anger 8. Work at meditation, thinking carefully about what matters in life Buddha believed that man alone could change evil into good if
he followed the Eightfold Path of the Middle Way. Mahabodhi Temple in India the place it is said that Buddha reached Nirvana. Great Buddha Bodh Gaya, India Confucianism
The Philosophy that is treated like a religion. Location Confucianism is not a religion but rather a philosophy that is often said to be the foundation of modern Chinese culture. Confucianism originated in the BCE period in China with the
teachings of Master Kung Fu Tzu. It has continued to have great influence on the Chinese and their government for over 2000 years. Many people in China still support the teaching of Confucius and study his teachings on our relationships with others.
Confucianism is also practiced by others in East Asia. Who is Confucius? Confucius was born in 550 BCE, a time of chaos in China when the government was having trouble keeping order much of the land was controlled by feudal warlords.
He strived to bring peace to ancient China the key was for people to behave with good character and virtue. Confucius created a moral structure for social life and politics that every person should follow.
Confucius was not a religious prophet or god, but rather a teacher and observer. A statue of the teacher, Master Confucius. Basic Beliefs of Confucianism
Confucianism is thought of as a philosophy or ethical system of behavior based on good deeds and morality it is NOT a religion. Confucius believed there were five basic relationships among men: ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother, & friend and friend.
He believed that if each relationship were based on kindness, there would be peace and harmony in the country. He followed the Golden Rule Do not do to others that which you do not like done to you. Basic Beliefs of Confucianism
The Four Books and Five Classics are the primary books on Confucianism The Analects are a collection of Confucius teachings compiled by his students and those who heard him speak
Special Note * - During the Cultural Revolution in China in the 1960s and 1970s, many Confucian writings were destroyed Temple & Cemetery of Confucius in his Hometown Hinduism Location
Hinduism developed in India around 1500 BCE. It is one of the oldest religions in the world. It is based on several collections of ancient teachings Today, Hinduism is largely practiced in India. 15 % of the worlds population is Hindu (~1 billion people), with 95 % of those living in India Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world, behind Christianity and Islam. Angkor Wat Temple in Cambodia One of the Worlds Largest Hindu
Temples Mindir in Robbinsville, NJ USAa Largest Hindu Temples Basic Beliefs of Hinduism Hinduism does not come from the teachings of one person.
It is based on the religion practices of ancient cultures. The prayers, rituals and ceremonies are recorded in the Vedas Today, there is not one single text that Hindus consider sacred, rather there are many like The
Vedas that teach Hindus proper behavior. Basic Beliefs of Hinduism Hinduism could be considered polytheistic, meaning that Hindus worship many gods and goddesses. It can also be considered monotheistic because Hindus say they worship many manifestations of one god.
Hindus believe that all living beings have souls (animals as well as people). Some animals, like the cow, are especially sacred, and for this reason many Hindus are vegetarians. Basic Beliefs of Hinduism
All Hindus believe in reincarnation, the idea that the soul does not die with the body, but enters the body of another being (human or animal). The type of life a person leads determines what the next life will be like. A soul is reincarnated over and over again until it is good enough to achieve moksha (freedom from the cycle).
Hindus also believe that each persons karma, or good or bad behavior, determines his fate. Basic Beliefs of Hinduism Hindus live by the caste system (a belief that social class is hereditary and does not change throughout a persons life). The only way to change castes is to be born into a different one in the next life.
There are also divisions within each caste. Traditional families would not let their children marry someone from another caste.
Many jobs in India are still awarded based on caste connections. Basic Beliefs of Hinduism The caste system divides people into 4 main classes: 1. Brahmans (priests and wise men) highest class 2. Kashatriyas (warriors, rulers, soldiers) next
class 3. Vaishyas (merchants, traders, small farmers) third 4. Shudras (peasants and field workers) last class A fifth caste is considered even lower, the untouchables or pariahs, who do work that no one else would do.
Diwali Festival of Lights Hindu Celebration in India Statue of Shiva (Hindu Deity) The Untouchables of India Shintoism Japans own unique religion Location
Shinto is the earliest religion in Japan. It is unique to Japan and has not spread to other parts of the world. Shinto literally translates to the way of the gods.
It was once the state religion of Japan and is still widely honored among the Japanese. Basic Beliefs of Shintoism Shintoism has no specific rules for living a good life and no single ruling god. There is no single sacred text that is followed. It centers on honoring the kami (divine spirits that
live in nature). Many Japanese believe that the mountains and rivers in Japan are home to these kami and are considered very sacred. This helps keep the pollution down in Japan because people want to take care of the kami that live in the natural world Basic Beliefs of Shintoism
Shinto followers offer prayers and perform rituals to honor and please the kami. Most Japanese households have a small altar where the family will offer prayers for the spirits they hope will bless and protect them. Many Japanese use these shrines to worship their ancestors
as well who they believe became kami when they died. Shintoism stresses the virtue of cleanliness and teaches physical purity. Since Shinto offers no ideas of a moral code, a god, or life after death, many people who practice Shinto also practice
another religion as well. Mt. Fuji Sacred to Shintoism Torri gates mark the separation between the human world and the world
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