MODELS OF HEALTH B I O M E D I C A L M O D E L O F H E A LT H S O C I A L M O D E L O F H E A LT H O T T A W A C H A R T E R F O R H E A LT H P R O M O T I O N BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH Is the quick fix or bandaid approach to health Centres around health professionals eg doctors, hospitals, medication Refers to diagnosis, treatment and cure. Has been around for thousands of years
What are some advantages and disadvantages of this model? BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Advancement in
technology Relies on professional health workers and technology Effective treatment Extend life expectancy Improve quality of life Narrow view of health (individual focus rather than holistic view) Not every condition can be treated
Expensive Watch 'Town of Allopath' video on learning page SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Definition: The Social Model of Health takes into account the SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ENVIRONMENTAL and ECONOMIC determinants which AFFECT health and produce INEQUITIES within the population rather than the disease or injury itself. Key Point:
If these determinants can be addressed, many diseases eg CVD, diabetes mellitus Type 2, obesity can be prevented. SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH Addresses the broader influences on health eg social, cultural, environmental & economic factors, rather than the disease or injury itself
It does this by taking into account the social determinants of health E.g. access to health care, SES, social connectedness as if you have those, you will have a higher health status and many diseases can be prevented or managed. Works together with the Biomedical Model of health PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH
Addresses the broader determinants of health Acts to reduce social inequities Empowers individuals & communities Acts to enable access to health care Involves intersectoral collaboration Addresses the broader determinants of health: Acknowledges the influence of GENDER, CULTURE, RACE, ETHNICITY, SES, GEOGRAPHICAL, LOCATION and the influence they can have on health status & health
Acts to reduce social inequities: If community/government can improve SES, or social exclusion or issues with race or gender, health status will improve Empowers individuals & communities: People will change their behaviour if they feel they have control and know how to do it Acts to enable access to health care:
If people have affordable, cultural and geographical access to health care, their health status will improve Involves intersectoral collaboration: Many different organisations and community groups can work together to improve health status SOCIAL MODEL VS BIOMEDICAL MODEL EXPLAINED
Biomedical and social models video on learning page SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH ADVANTAGES? Promoted good health and assists in preventing diseases Promotes overall wellbeing Relatively inexpensive Focuses on population groups that are in need
DISADVANTAGES? Not every condition can be prevented Does not promote the development of technology and medical knowledge Education is passed on Does not address the health concerns of an individual Health isnt the responsibility
of just the individual but also health sectors Health promotion messages can be ignored. COMPARISON OF THE TWO MODELS Social Model of Health Biomedical Model
of Health SOCIAL MODEL VS BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH Explain why it is important to have both the biomedical and social models of health if we are to improve health status. (2 marks) O T TAWA C H A RT E R FOR H E A LT H P R O M O T I O N
( O F T E N R E F E R R E D T O A S T H E O T TAWA CHARTER) Health promotion refers to enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health. Ottawa Charter : provides a framework on which to develop health promotion policies. OTTAWA CHARTER PREREQUISITES
Based on certain prerequisites that must be in place for improvement in health to occur o Peace o Shelter o Education o Food o Income o Social justice & equity o Stable ecosystem o Sustainable resources eg food, water, timber for building STRATEGIES FOR HEALTH
Advocate: PROMOTION actions which work to gain support from governments to improve all of the determinants of health, so lobbying governments for that bike path or new drink driving laws Enable: Helping people (enabling) to achieve equity in health by improving access to education, jobs, shelter. Should occur by empowering people to take control of own health, not by handouts Mediate: Changes which promote health could lead to conflict
between different groups eg banning smoking outside cafes. Health professionals and officials need to mediate with all stakeholders to show the positive health effects and to listen to concerns. ACTION AREAS: OTTAWA CHARTER Build Healthy Public Policy Create Supportive Environments Strengthen Community Action Develop Personal Skills Reorient health services
Bad Cats Smell Dead Rats Build Healthy Public Policy: Any law or policy by governments & organisations which will improve health o Eg. seat belt law, or no bullying in schools, or no smoking in public areas; removing taxes on healthy foods. Create Supportive Environments: Helps people to practise healthy behaviours o Eg. Shade areas at school to encourage sunsmart behaviours; Quitline for smokers to call if they feel the urge to smoke Strengthen Community Action: o Focuses on building links between the individual & the
community o Focuses on the community working together to achieve an improvement in health o Eg. local council works with older community to run free walking groups; road safety initiatives are a joint effort between government, Vicroads and TAC. Develop Personal Skills: o Education and enhancing life skills are the key aspect of this priority area. o Eg. Attending Cooking classes; learning strategies to deal with anxiety; Slip, Slop, Slap, Seek, Slide
campaign Reorient Health Services: o Getting the health profession and others to promote health, rather than diagnosing, and treating diseases o Eg. Doctors recommending physical activity to lose weight, rather than stomach stapling; dieticians coming to schools to promote healthy eating HEALTH PROMOTION AND
OTTAWA CHARTER EXPLAINED An introduction to Health Promotion and the Ottawa cha rter.mp4 APPLYING THE MODELS OF HEALTH Example Reducing the rates of CVD Biomedical model of Health: Surgery to assist with treating the condition Social Model/ Ottawa Charter: Focus on healthy eating and physical activity to prevent the development of CVD.
Lets apply this to another.. EXAMPLE 1 USING THE 5 PRIORITY AREAS OF THE OTTAWA CHARTER, TRY AND ADDRESS THE ISSUE OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY AT A SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. Building public policy Reorient health
services Develop personal skills Childho od obesity Create supportive environme
nts Strengthe n communit y action EXAMPLE 2 USING THE 5 PRIORITY AREAS OF THE OTTAWA CHARTER, TRY AND ADDRESS THE ISSUE OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN P PLATE DRIVERS AT A SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL.
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