SINGAPORE: TACKLING FUTURE MOBILITY DEMAND WAQAS CHEEMA LKY CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE CITIES SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN The Journey For the first 30 years, road and public transport systems managed separately In 1995, Land Transport Authority as one major

governing body The White Paper (1996) identified 4 key strategies: 1. 2. 3. 4. Integrating transport and land use planning Expanding the road network and maximizing its capacity Managing demand for road usage Providing quality public transport choices

..convinced that Singapore is well placed to create a world class system (Hasegawa et al, 1997) Independent International Audit Panel Road Development Over last 19 years, road network has been expanded by about 16% Road density (km/sq. km) Tokyo New York

London Hong Kong Singapore 0 2 4 6 8

10 12 14 16 18 20

Road Development 1995 to 2010, rate of total vehicle population growth outstripped growth of road development Vehicle growth - 3% p.a. p.a. Road growth - 1% 300 Vehicles/km (#)

250 200 150 Cars/km Vehicles/km 100 50 0 2002 2004

2006 2008 Year Vehicles to Road length ratio 2010 2012 2014

Road Management Maximize Capacity Regulate Vehicle Use i-transport EMAS Intelligent

Transport Systems TrafficScan GLIDE J-Eyes i-Transport System Integrated and unified platform that centralizes the management of all Intelligent Transport Systems 24/7 ITS operating centre

Includes: - Traffic signal control - Traffic monitoring - Incident management - Provision of real-time traffic advisory information Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System (EMAS) Intelligent incident management tool that manages traffic along Expressways Detects accidents, vehicle breakdowns and other

incidents promptly, ensuring fast response to restore normal traffic flow - Recovery crew arrives within 15 minutes Provides real-time information of travelling time from the entry point of Expressway to selected exits Green Link Determining (GLIDE) System Controls all traffic signals in Singapore Wire sensors beneath the road surface of junctions to sense the presence of vehicles

Adjust green time in response to changing traffic flow Also, links adjacent traffic signals to allow vehicles to travel from one junction to another with minimal stops Traffic Scan system & Junction-eyes (J-Eyes) TrafficScan - provides updated travel information on roads to motorists - Taxis equipped with GPS give information on their locations and speeds as

they ply along roads J-Eyes - system of surveillance cameras at strategic signalized junctions for traffic conditions monitoring purposes App empowering commuters, motorists and cyclists to make informed decisions and better plan their journeys Features include: - Public transport journey planner

- Search nearby bus stops and arrival times - Search nearby taxi stands and book taxis - Report road defects via crowdsourcing - Get real-time parking lots availability - Traffic news - Explore cycling towns, routes, and parking facilities Regulate Vehicle Use 1. Congestion pricing In 1999, Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system to charge vehicles in central zone

Regulate Vehicle Use 2. Demand management Previously, mechanisms such as import fee worth 130%, and an excise tax of 20% In 1990, Government cut the growth of car population from 6% to 3% a year. And further to 1.5% in 2009, 1% in 2012, and 0.5% 2013 onwards Vehicle Quota System - prospective car owners to bid for Certificate of Entitlement (COE)

Number of Cars / 100 persons Tokyo New York London Hong Kong Singapore 0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Average Speed of vehicles on roads 70 60 Avg. Speed (km/h) 50 40 Expressway (km/h)

CBD (km/h) 30 20 10 0 2000 2002

2004 2006 2008 Year 2010 2012 2014

Taxi network 18000 taxis carrying around 1 million passengers a day Liberalized market with few operators Quality of Service Standards by the government Highest number of taxis per million population among Hong Kong, London, and New York At one of the lowest fares Bus Network By 1990s, two multi-modal Public Transport Operators

ComfortDelgro, the parent of SBS Transit, and SMRT Corporation In 2008, Land Transport Authority (LTA) took the role of centralised bus planner Today, buses dominant public transport mode over 3.6 million journeys per day Population Buses Ratio 335 330

325 People/bus (#) 320 315 310 305

300 295 290 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year

2010 2012 2014 One of the highest in comparison Bus fleet / million persons Tokyo New York

London Hong Kong Singapore 0 200 400 600

800 1000 1200 At one of the lowest fares Avg. Bus fare ($/pax-trip) 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Singapore Hong Kong London

New York Tokyo Rail Network Realized in 1972 that buses alone would not be able to cater for all Singapores public transport demand Construction began in 1982 First line opened in 1987 Today, 153km of MRT line (tube) and over 2.6 million passengers a day

Strategy Connect Regional, Sub-Regional, and Central Area Population Rail length Ratio Rail density (km/million people) 40 Rail density (km/million people) 35 30

25 20 15 10 1985 1990 1995

2000 Year 2005 2010 2015 In comparison to other metropolitans Rail Length (km) / million persons Tokyo

New York London Hong Kong Singapore 0 10

20 30 40 50 60 At one of the lowest fares Avg. MRT fare ($/pax-trip) 3

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Singapore Hong Kong London

New York Tokyo Recent years & Future Changing dynamics GDP 28% higher in 2012 as compared to 2008 Expected to grow 3-4% every year over the next 10-15 years Population grew from 4.8 million in 2008 to 5.3 million

in 2012 More than 12.5 million journeys today. Expected to reach to 14.3 million by 2020 Areas of focus 1. More Connections - 8 in 10 homes to be within 10-min walk to MRT - Integrated Hubs to make transfers easily - Majorly Public Transport dependent 2. Better Service - Ramp up capacity to reduce over crowding - Improve reliability and provide information on arrival and journey

times 3. Liveable and Inclusive Community - Make public transport system barrier free - Promote lower emissions and green vehicles Road Development Already 12% for road as compared to 14% for housing Slower growth of road development in future as limited capacity - prioritization of new roads for bus lanes Innovative methods Reversible flow on expressway

Public Transport Share 80% 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% 1997 2004

2008 2013 2030 Dip because of faster growth in private transport as compared to public transport Bus Network Bus Service Enhancement Program (BSEP) in 2012 - Increase fleet by 20% (800 new buses) over 5 years - Government to fund 550 of them, rest by operators

- Decrease waiting time - 4 in 5 bus services run every 10 minutes or less during weekday peak hours, improvement from every 15 minutes in 2008 Other advancements: - Bus priority schemes: Mandatory Give-Way on more than 350 bus stops - Bus-triggered signal priority system in test-bedding - Premium Bus Service scheme - commuters willing to pay higher fare for better service - Fast Forward Bus service - fewer stops between long distances Rail Network Between now and 2021, a new train line or extension to open every

year even more between 2020 and 2030 Double rail network from 138km to approximately 280km by around 2020 More trains to existing lines to increase capacity by 110% Upgrade signaling system by 2018 on two major existing lines 20% increase in capacity Trains will run at 100-second intervals down from 120 seconds today 6 trains every 10 min instead of current 5 Rail Length (km) / million persons Tokyo

New York London Hong Kong Singapore Singapore 2030 0 10

20 30 40 50 60 MRT system by 2030

Taxi Network Taxi standards revised in 2013 - 80-85% of the taxis to be on the road at peak periods by 2015, as compared to 65-70% today - 85% of the taxis to achieve daily minimum mileage of 250km as compared to 70% today Innovative private Taxi Apps Uber, GrabTaxi, EasyTaxi, allowed in the market

Cycling Recent shift towards cycling As of 2012, 6.4km of cycling path in 5 out of 26 residential districts By 2015, 100km of cycling path By 2020, 190km in all of 26 districts Paths will lead to neighboring areas around districts e.g. schools, MRTs, and shopping center Long term vision - Island-wide cycling path of 700km Test-bedding bicycle sharing scheme in one district in 2015 EZ-link card One card for all public transport modes

Since 2010, fare calculated based on total distance, irrespective of number or modes of transfers Extension of services to other lifestyle elements such as shopping payments Decentralization of Commercial Centers Decentralize commercial and other economic activities through the development of regional, sub-regional and fringe centres at MRT stations Reduce the needs to travel by locating employment

centres near to residential areas These Integrated Hubs becoming fun and convenient lifestyle places for commuters to embark on their journey, or meet, live, work and play ITS Vision for 2030 Moving towards a more connected and interactive land transport community Smart Urban Mobility of the Future where people and the transportation system are seamlessly connected, interacting through innovative, state-of-the-art

ITS technologies Real-time information of everything Includes: - Travel times - Crowdedness in buses / trains - Arrival times of buses, trains, and taxis - Queue lengths at junctions and stations - Parking availability Achieved by embedded sensors, satellite trackers, HD cameras, and crowd sourcing

Smart Agent A mobile App or a device able to: - Interact with various modes of transport for locating shared vehicles, booking taxis, etc - Provide smarter information of journey planning with combination of choices - Take care of logistics e.g. making payments Interactivity V2V

Communication between nearby vehicles wirelessly, sharing useful information on surroundings Interactivity V2I Communication with infrastructure on signals, traffic availability, and road conditions Shared Vehicles Intelligent vehicle-sharing system - users to locate vehicle on their smart devices and drive to destination without having to return it to its original location

Vehicle will subsequently be picked up by another user from the previous location Shared Vehicles Ride-sharing to provide smarter way of car pooling and maximizing capacity Such smart on-demand vehicle sharing mobility solution can reduce vehicle ownership and congestion drastically Satellite-based tracking & ERP

GNSS technology to provide next generation Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) - overcomes the constraints of physical gantries - allows more flexible distance-based congestion charging Autonomous Vehicles Autonomous driving signifies a paradigm shift Driverless buses to provide greater connectivity for the first and last mile travel, mitigate driver shortages and improve productivity

Autonomous Vehicles Driverless cars to maintain a safe distance from other vehicles and comply with speed limits automatically, hence eliminating human errors Driverless vehicles can move in platoon formation in compact and systematic manner to optimise road capacity Green Vehicles 20% of the total carbon emission & 75% of air pollution attributed to motorised traffic

Electric powered vehicles and diesel-hybrid systems more energy efficient and less harmful to the environment Metric for Ideal Future City Objective is to highlight areas each city should focus on developing in order to reach the vision by 2030 Metric for Future City Mass public transport Interactivity

Shared vehicles Telepresence Intergrated system Autonomous vehicles Bicycles Smart Agent Metric for 'City X Mass public transport

Interactivity Shared vehicles Telepresence Intergrated system Autonomous vehicles Bicycles Smart Agent


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