ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Address of electrons in atoms

ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Address of electrons in atoms

ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Address of electrons in atoms ELECTRONS IN ORBIT ABOUT THE NUCLEUS ELECTRON DENSITY OF 1s ORBITAL

Where 90% of the e- density is found for the 1s orbital e- density (1s orbital) falls off rapid as distance from nucleus increases Schrdinger Wave Equation

= fn(n, l, ml, ms) ______________________________ l or a given value of n, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, nl n = 1, l = 0 l n = 2, l = 0 or 1 l n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2

l = = = = 0 1

2 3 s p d f orbital

orbital orbital orbital Shape of the volume of space that the e - occupies l = 0 (s orbitals) l = 1 (p orbitals)

l = 2 (d orbitals) ml = -1 ml = -2 ml = 0

ml = -1 ml = 0 ml = 1 ml = 1 ml = 2

Energy of orbitals in a single electron atom Energy depends only on principal quantum number n n=3 n=2 En = -RH (

n=1 1 n2 ) Energy of orbitals in a many-electron atom Energy depends on n and l

n=3 l = 2 n=3 l = 0 n=2 l = 0 n=1 l = 0 n=3 l = 1 n=2 l = 1

Fill lowest energy orbitals first (Aufbau principle) He 2 electrons He 1s2 Fill lowest energy orbitals first (Aufbau principle) Li 3 electrons

Li 1s22s1 Fill lowest energy orbitals first (Aufbau principle) Be 4 electrons Be 1s22s2 Fill lowest energy orbitals first (Aufbau principle)

B 5 electrons B 1s22s22p1 Fill lowest energy orbitals first (Aufbau principle) ? C 6 electrons C

1s22s22p2 s rule: The most stable arrangement of rons in subshells is the one with the greate r of parallel spins. C 6 electrons C

1s22s22p2 s rule: The most stable arrangement of rons in subshells is the one with the greate r of parallel spins. ? N 7 electrons N

1s22s22p3 s rule: The most stable arrangement of rons in subshells is the one with the greate r of parallel spins. N 7 electrons N

1s22s22p3 s rule: The most stable arrangement of rons in subshells is the one with the greate r of parallel spins. O 8 electrons O

1s22s22p4 s rule: The most stable arrangement of rons in subshells is the one with the greate r of parallel spins. F 9 electrons F

1s22s22p5 Hunds rule: The most stablearrangement of electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins. Ne 10 electrons Ne

1s22s22p6 er of orbitals (filling) in multi-electron a < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < utermost subshell being filled with electron

rons determine all of rties and some of the rties of elements. the chemi physical

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