Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation

Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation Head in the Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a collection of small water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the air. Clouds are visible because water droplets and ice crystals reflect light. Clouds are usually associated with precipitation,

but most cloud types do not produce precipitation. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation How do clouds affect climate? The pattern of precipitation from clouds in an area will determine the climate of that area. Thick, low-altitude clouds reflect more sunlight back into space and help to cool Earth. Thin, high-altitude clouds absorb some energy that radiates from Earth and reradiate some of it back

to Earths surface. This warms Earth. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation How do clouds form? Clouds form when water vapor condenses, or changes from a gas to a liquid. For water vapor to condense, moist air must be cooled to a certain temperature, and the air must be holding the maximum amount of water vapor possible.

If air rises high enough into the atmosphere, it cools to its dew point. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation How do clouds form? Dew point is defined as the temperature at which the rate of condensation equals the rate of saturation. Saturation means that the air is holding the maximum quantity of water vapor possible at a

given temperature or pressure. Dew point is the temperature at which water vapor in saturated air can condense and form water droplets or ice crystals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation How do clouds form? In clouds, tiny solid particles called cloud condensation nuclei are the surfaces on which water droplets condense.

Clouds are most commonly made of numerous small water droplets. However, at high altitudes, where temperatures are very cold, clouds are composed of ice crystals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What is the role of solar energy in cloud formation? Solar energy drives the water cycle and thus provides the energy for cloud formation.

Water on the surface of the land and the oceans absorbs solar energy and becomes water vapor, in a process called evaporation. Cloud formation takes place when water droplets or ice crystals condense on solid particles in the air. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What processes cool air enough to form clouds?

Air can be cooled to its dew point in several ways, including frontal and orographic lifting. Frontal lifting can occur when a warm air mass rises over a cold air mass, or when a mass of cold air slides under a mass of warm air. Orographic lifting occurs when an obstacle, such as a mountain range, forces a mass of air upward. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What processes cool air enough to form clouds?

In what ways are the processes of frontal lifting and orographic lifting similar? In what ways are they different? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are three cloud shapes? The three classes of clouds based on shape are stratus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds. Stratus clouds are thin and flat, and their edges

are not clearly defined. Stratus is a Latin word that means layer. Stratus clouds often merge into one another and may look like a single layer that covers the entire sky. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are three cloud shapes? Cumulus is a Latin word that means heap. Cumulus clouds are thick and puffy on top and generally flat on the bottom.

These clouds have well-defined edges and can change shape rapidly. They can be bright or dark, and they can produce severe weather. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are three cloud shapes? Cirrus is a Latin word that means curl. Cirrus clouds look white and feathery, and their ends curl. They are made of ice crystals rather than liquid

water droplets. They do not produce precipitation that reaches Earths surface. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation Ive Looked at Clouds from Both Sides Now What are the types of clouds based on altitude? The four classes of clouds based on altitude are low clouds, middle clouds, high clouds, and clouds of vertical development.

These four classes are made up of 10 cloud types. Prefixes are used to name the clouds that belong to some of these classes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are the types of clouds based on altitude? Low clouds form between Earths surface and 2,000 m altitude. They are commonly made up of water droplets.

The three types of low clouds are stratus, stratocumulus, and nimbostratus. There is no special prefix for naming low clouds. However, nimbus means rain, so nimbostratus clouds are rain clouds. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are the types of clouds based on altitude? Middle clouds form between 2,000 m and 6,000 m

altitude. They are commonly made up of water droplets, but may be made up of ice crystals. The prefix alto- is used to name middle clouds. The two types of middle clouds are altocumulus and altostratus. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are the types of clouds based on altitude? High clouds form above 6,000 m altitude, where

air temperature is below freezing. Therefore, high clouds are made up of ice crystals. The prefix cirro- is used to name high clouds. Cirrus, cirrocumulus, and cirrostratus are the types of high clouds. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are the types of clouds based on altitude? A cloud of vertical development can have its base

at low altitude, but its top can reach higher than 12,000 m. The two types of clouds of vertical development are cumulus and cumulonimbus. Cumulonimbus clouds are linked to severe weather and can produce rain, hail, lightning, tornadoes, and rapidly sinking columns of air. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation What are the types of clouds based on altitude?

Identify the various types of clouds shown here. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation How does fog form? Water vapor that condenses very near Earths surface is called fog. It forms when moist air near Earths surface or moving across cold water cools to its dew point. Ground fog, or radiation fog, generally forms in

low-lying areas on clear, calm nights. Sea fog, or advection fog, occurs at all times of day. Steam fog forms when evaporation takes place into cold air that is lying over warmer water. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 4 Lesson 2 Clouds and Cloud Formation Clouds on Other Worlds Like Earth, other bodies in the solar system have clouds in their atmosphere. There are clouds on Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and

Saturn. The clouds of Jupiter and Saturn are arranged in bands that circle the planets. Saturns moon Titan has clouds in a thick, planetlike atmosphere. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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