Kin selection, inclusive fitness Hamiltons rule: r n

Kin selection, inclusive fitness Hamiltons rule: r n

Kin selection, inclusive fitness Hamiltons rule: r n b > c (coefficient of relatedness) Pseudo-altruistic behavior Eusocial Insects Hymenoptera (thin wings) Ants, bees, wasps, hornetsall workers are females Haplodiploidly Isoptera (same wings) Termites (castes consist of both sexes) Endosymbionts Parental manipulation Cyclic inbreeding Adaptive Geometry of a Selfish Herd Helpers at the Nest in White-Fronted Bee Eaters in Kenya Reciprocal Altruism (Trivers) Donor > Recipient Small costs, large gains, reciprocated Sentinels, selfish callers Biological basis for our sense of justice? Friendship, gratitude, sympathy, loyalty, betrayal, guilt,

dislike, revenge, trust, suspicion, dishonesty, hypocrisy Game Theoretic Approaches Costs versus benefits of behaviors tit for tat strategy + forgiveness can lead to cooperation (the future casts a long shadow back on the present) Evolutionarily stable strategies = ESS Evolution of self deceit makes for better liars Subconscious mind Polygraph playback experiments Summary of Direct Pairwise Interactions Between Two Populations _________________________________________________________________________ Species Type of Interaction A B Nature of Interaction _________________________________________________________________________ Competition Each population inhibits the other

Predation, parasitism, and Batesian mimicry + Population A, the predator, parasite, or mimic, kills or exploits members of population B, the prey, host, or model Mutualism, Mllerian mimicry + + Interaction is favorable to both (can be obligatory or facultative) Commensalism

+ 0 Population A, the commensal, benefits whereas B, the host, is not affected Amensalism 0 Population A is inhibited, but B is unaffected Neutralism 0 0

Neither party affects the other ___________________________________________________________________________________ Exploitation competition (indirect, resource depression) Interference competition (direct antagonistic encounters) Complex Population Interactions Rob Colwell Summary of Direct Pairwise Interactions Between Two Populations _________________________________________________________________________ Species Type of Interaction A B Nature of Interaction _________________________________________________________________________ Competition

Each population inhibits the other Predation, parasitism, and Batesian mimicry + Population A, the predator, parasite, or mimic, kills or exploits members of population B, the prey, host, or model Mutualism, Mllerian mimicry + + Interaction is favorable to both (can be obligatory or facultative)

Commensalism + 0 Population A, the commensal, benefits whereas B, the host, is not affected Amensalism 0 Population A is inhibited, but B is unaffected Neutralism 0

0 Neither party affects the other ___________________________________________________________________________________ Mutualistic Interactions and Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism (obligate and facultative) Termite endosymbionts Commensalisms (Cattle Egrets) Examples: Bullhorn Acacia ant colonies (Beltian bodies) Caterpillars sing to ants (protection) Ants tend aphids for their honeydew, termites cultivate fungi Bacteria and fungi in roots provide nutrients (carbon reward) Bioluminescence (bacteria) Endozoic algae (Hydra), bleaching of coral reefs (coelenterates) Nudibranch sea slugs: Nematocysts, kidnapped chloroplasts Endosymbiosis (Lynn Margulis) mitochondria & chloroplasts Birds on water buffalo backs, picking crocodile teeth Figs and fig wasps (pollinate, lay eggs, larvae develop)

Nudibranchs Green sea slug Hydra Cleaner fish Saber toothed blenny Honey guide and honey badger (ratel) Plant-pollinator, plant seed dispersal (flowers, fruit) Carbohydrate reward (nectar, fruit pulp) Pollinating vectors high degree of plant-animal specificity assures that pollen will not be wasted. Costs versus benefits to both plant and pollinator. Must provide large enough reward to make it worthwhile for pollinator to visit flower, but small enough to assure that the pollinator will continue to look for another flower (in order to move pollen) Dan Janzen

Euglossine bees Orchid fragrances (epiphytes) Male bees use orchid chemicals as base for production of pheromones to attract female bees (travel up to 23 km) pollinate rare and diverse orchids, allowing sparsely distributed plants to occur at astonishing low densities Heliconius tropical butterflies get amino acids from pollen Larry Gilbert Various Aspects of the Association of Cattle Egrets with Cattle ________________________________________________________ Number of Number Percent Associated Egrets Category of Cattle Cattle

Expected Observed ___________________________________________________________________ Grazing in sun Grazing in shade Standing in sun Standing in shade Lying in sun Lying in shade Walking Total 735 55 146 257 503 143 39 39.1 2.9

7.8 13.7 26.8 7.6 2.1 1878 100.0 239 439 18 21 48 46 84 17 164 69 47 17

13 3 ______________________ 612 ________________________________________________________ Various Aspects of the Association of Cattle Egrets with Cattle ____________________________________________________________________ Mean Number Per Minute Number of Times Count Was Higher Than for Opposite Egret Number of Associated Egrets ____________________________________________________________________

Feedings, N = 84 Associated 2.34 58 69 Nonassociated 1.71 26 31 Steps, N = 62 Associated Nonassociated 20.1 32.1 7 55 Feeding/step, N = 59 Associated Nonassociated

0.129 0.051 52 7 11 89 Harold Heatwole 88 12 ________________________________________________________

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