Chapter 16: Marine Ecosystems Oceanography 2014 Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Marine Ecosystems Oceanography 2014 Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Marine Ecosystems Oceanography 2014 Chapter 16 Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Biotic Abiotic Community Population Ecology Habitat Microhabitat Niche Ecosystem 1. Biome large geographical area of

distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Detritus Antarctic Divergence

Eutrophication Littoral Zone Meiofauna Levels of Ecology Biomes: A Review WORLD BIOMES Aquatic Biomes Tundra Rainforest

Savanna Taiga Temperate Forest Temperate Grassland Alpine Chaparral Desert Aquatic Freshwater Marine Community vs. Population

<<< Community: Multiple species that interact Population: >>> Group of ONE species in a given area Habitats ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism Examples: Clown Fish

Habitat = Sea Anemones in an area of a coral reef Fiddler Crab Habitat = Sandy areas of a salt marsh Finding your Niche Unique way of life specific to an organism Individual role of a species in an ecosystem No two species can occupy the same

niche in an ecosystem without one outcompeting each other EXAMPLE: Remoras are small fish that live on sharks. Their niche is their role cleaner fish for specific shark species. Food Chains & Webs Food Web: all the food chains found within an ecosystem, shows all possible paths for energy to move Food Chain: one part of a food web starting from producers ends at decomposers Trophic Levels

Producers 1st level in the trophic system Make their own food (autotrophs): Photosynthesis or Chemosynthesis Examples: Plants and phytoplankton Consumers 2nd/3rd/4th levels of the trophic systems: primary, secondary, tertiary Primary consumers are herbivores Secondary consumers eat herbivores Tertiary consumers eat the secondary consumers

Decomposers Last level of the trophic system as dead animals are broken down Examples: mushrooms and bacteria Ecosystem Types

Coral Reefs Estuaries Salt Marshes Mangroves Kelp Forests Beaches / Tidal Zones Polar Hydrothermal Vents Abyssal

Coral Reef Ecosystem Located in waters between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer Require water temperatures to be warm and stable year-round (64-86 F) Individual coral polyps build the reef's calcium carbonate structure As a single polyp dies, its soft tissue decays, but the calcium carbonate cup remains Other polyps build on top of the cup Over time, this process creates

larger and larger coral reefs Estuary Ecosystem Partially enclosed body of water where fresh water mixes with salt water areas of transition between the land and sea Examples: bays, harbors, inlets or sounds

Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuarine system in the US Salt Marsh Ecosystem Coastal wetlands that are flooded and drained along with tides Soil composed of deep mud and peat. Peat is made of decomposing plant matter that is waterlogged and very spongy

They provide food, refuge, and nursery habitat for more than 75 percent of fisheries species Found within estuarine systems Mangrove Ecosystem Tree systems with roots submerged in water Thrive in hot, muddy, salty conditions that would quickly kill most plants.

How do they do it? Through a series of adaptations a filtration system that keeps out much of the salt a complex root system that holds the mangrove upright in loose, sandy sediments Kelp Forest Ecosystem Giant kelp Species of brown macro-algae

Grow along rocky coastlines Depths from 2 m to 30 m + Nutrient-rich, cool water Temperature from 5o to 20o C Clear water conditions through which light penetrates easily Often found in regions where upwelling occurs Beach / Tidal Ecosystem Beach has habitats such as dunes, intertidal region, and tide pools Seawater trapped in depressions in the rocks

forms tide pools Shallow pools are extreme environment with changing water levels and temperatures Home to many types of plants and animals Polar Ecosystem Artic and Antarctic Cover 20% of Earth Covered by areas of thick ice

Coldest habitats in the world Plankton are an essential part of the ecosystem Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystem Deep-sea hydrothermal vents form due to volcanic activity on the ocean floor Water leaks through cracks in the Earth's crust dissolves metals and minerals and

becomes super-heated from magma. Water can be as hot as 400o C Chemosynthesis: relies on hydrogen sulfide instead of sunlight 300+ unique species live in these environment Abyssal Ecosystem Abyssal Zone: 3,000 to 6,000 meters deep Cold temperatures, and high pressure

Animals in this region relay on dead animals from above that sink to the bottom as their main food source Some animals exhibit bioluminescence Notes Quiz 1. Put the following in order from smallest to largest: Community, Individual, Ecosystem, Biosphere, Population 2. Is this a community or a population? 3. Remoras that serve as cleaner fish on sharks are an

example of what aspect of ecology? 4. What is the 1st level of the tropic system? 5. Name 3 ecosystem types. Oceanography May 13, 2014 1. What do estuaries, salt marshes, and mangroves have in common? 2. What type of animals would you expect to find in a polar ecosystem? 3. What type of marine ecosystem is the local watershed?

Oceanography May 21, 2014 1. Give an example of an animal with a specific niche. 2. What role do dead things play in ecosystems? 3. What does a coral polyp look like? Sketch a basic diagram.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Three-Dimensional Template Correlation: Object Recognition in 3D Voxel

    Three-Dimensional Template Correlation: Object Recognition in 3D Voxel

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays 1000s of uncommitted elements Custom processor built on demand On-chip RAM bandwidth: >1TBit/sec Massive parallelism: 100s-1000s of PEs Accelerator is tailored to each application Acceleration Strategy Standard approach: Accelerated approach: Correlation Pipeline Direct correlation Beats FFT...
  • Do Now…Surviving

    Do Now…Surviving

    4A - Find your seat please Then, pick up 15 beans from the red basket on the stool. (Yes, exactly 15.) 3 - Clair Feldmann. 4 - Anthony Morris
  • Data Visualization - Cityarts

    Data Visualization - Cityarts

    Data Visualization A Sketch QUESTIONS: Martin Wattenberg What would be a typical research process for your projects? Where do you start and why, in regards to the following statement, "Wattenberg is a researcher at IBM, where he invents new forms...
  • The Safe Foodhandler - Amazon S3

    The Safe Foodhandler - Amazon S3

    the food handler from the operation if you primarily serve a high-risk population. The food handler must be cleared by his or her medical practitioner before returning to work. If the food handler is vomiting or has diarrhea. ... The...
  • Lesson 11: Safe Relationships and Preventing Sexual Harassment

    Lesson 11: Safe Relationships and Preventing Sexual Harassment

    Lesson 11: Safe Relationships and Preventing Sexual Harassment. Let the class know that today you will be talking about safe relationships and sexual harassment. If you currently do not have class agreements, it is highly recommended that you spend some...
  • Stats in a Hurry

    Stats in a Hurry

    Stats in a Hurry. Mean, Median, Standard Deviation, and more. A WUTUG presentation by Cindy Traub and Maggie Konich
  • Respuesta de los CDC al zika VIRUS DEL

    Respuesta de los CDC al zika VIRUS DEL

    Además de discapacidades cognitivas, motoras y del sensorio que son comunes a otros defectos de nacimiento, el síndrome congénito de zika está asociado a cinco defectos de nacimiento que no se habían observado o que ocurren con muy poca frecuencia...
  • Hormony - Masaryk University

    Hormony - Masaryk University

    Zvýšené hladiny T4, volného T4 nebo T3; TPO a protilátky proti tyreoglobulinu Protilátky proti TSH receptoru: tyreoidní stimulating immunoglobin (TSI) pozitivní v 80% TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobin (TBII) v 60-90% * * Gangliové buňky sítnice Tractus retinohypothalamicus Nucleus suprachiasmaticus = SCN...