Child Poverty Session Children & Young People Public
Child Poverty Session Children & Young People Public Health Group 24 August 2017 Aims of the session 1.To get an update on the Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill; 2.To seek views on what should be included in the content of the statutory guidance on local child poverty action plan reports; 3.To provide summarised information on the causes of child
poverty and current evidence base on effective interventions; 4.To share insights and experience from each other on advocating for/influencing child poverty as a local priority; 5.To consider what other type of support would be useful to access (e.g. data, outcomes planning, evaluation). Programme 1. Welcome & introductions 2. Summary of child poverty in Scotland, its causes and consequences
3. Summary of evidence base 4. Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill update - Stage 2 amendments - Local child poverty action plan reports and potential support required 5. Advocating for/influencing child poverty as a local priority shared insights and experience 6. Next steps
Child poverty in Scotland: its causes and consequences Outline
Scale of the issue, trends over time Distribution of child poverty Causes of child poverty Consequences for health (inequalities) Issues to consider Scale of the issue Latest measures of child poverty in Scotland Relative poverty
Absolute poverty Combined material deprivation and low income Persistent poverty Absolute number 260,000 230,000
110,000 % Year 26% 23% 12%
2015/16 2015/16 2015/16 / 12% 2011-2015
Source: HBAI dataset, DWP 2015/16; Understanding Society, 2010-2015. Trends over time Source: Institute for Fiscal Studies; Scottish Government (based on DWP HBAI data). Who is affected? - 1 Source: Scottish Government (2017) 2015/16 Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2015/16
Who is affected? - 2 Source: HBAI dataset, DWP 2015/16 Who is affected? - 3 Source: HBAI dataset, DWP 2015/16 Who is affected? - 4
Percentage of children in relative poverty, after housing costs, by age of youngest child in household: United Kingdom, 2010/11 to 2015/16 Source: Family Resources Survey 40 35 30 Percentage
25 0-4 20 5 - 10 11 - 15 15
16 - 19 10 5 0 2010/11
2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 Axis Title Source: Family Resources Survey 2014/15
2015/16 The geography of child poverty Source: Giles and Richardson (2017), based on HMRC data. Child poverty risk and area deprivation Source: Giles and Richardson (2017), based on HMRC data.
Scottish Government: drivers & solutions Employment status In-work poverty: wages, hours, insecurity, progression Costs of living: housing, childcare, fuel Social security benefits, including tax credits Educational attainment (a dual role) Underpinned by structural factors e.g. local and national housing and labour markets
Source: SG, Building the Evidence Base on Tackling Poverty (2017) The social security system Percentage of children in relative poverty after housing costs, by benefits claimed by household: UK, 2010/11 to 2015/16 100 90 80 70
Jobseeker's Allowance 60 Employment and Support Allowance Child Tax Credit 50 Working Tax Credit
Income Support 40 Not in receipt of any state support 30 20 10 0 2010/11
2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 Source: DWP HBAI, various years. 2014/15
2015/16 The dark logic of UK Welfare Reform Impact on lone parents and their children In 2015/16 in Scotland, at least 2,656 lone parents sanctioned, against 961 job outcomes through Work Programme (Source: DWP). Four weeks with no money is pretty alarming when youve got kids and bills and a house to run. (Patrick, 2017:131)
Theyre all right saying that [a sanction] is a punishment for not going in but what are me and my son meant to eat for the rest of that week? Really, they were quick enough to take our money but if thats the only money were getting, what are we meant to do? (Patrick, 2017:138) UK Welfare Reform Source: CPAG Early Warning System.
Financial management Source: Finney & Hayes (2015), based on Wealth and Assets Survey 2010-12. Alternative perspectives? Five pathways to poverty: family breakdown, educational failure, worklessness and dependency, addiction and serious personal debt (e.g. Centre for Social Justice) A move away from a fixation with income measures However:
Conflation of cause, effect and measurement These measures do not help in measuring progress towards reducing child poverty. All the factors mentioned are a potential consequences of poverty (in childhood and adulthood), as much as causes. Some of them are future-orientated: action might help reduce the risk of poverty for children in the future, but will do nothing for child poverty now. (Source: Stewart and Roberts, 2016)
Scottish public opinion What is the main cause of child poverty in Scotland today? Their parents suffer from alcoholism, drug abuse or other addictions (29%) Because of inequalities in society (16%) Their parents do not want to work (13%) Their parents have been out of work for a long time (10%) Their parents' work doesn't pay enough (8%) Source: Scottish Government (2015) Public Attitudes to Poverty, Inequality and
Welfare in Scotland and Britain, p. 15 Consequences for health (inequalities) Why does it matter? Direct, children today Indirect, parental Direct, long-term effects
Examples of risks Child social and emotional wellbeing Childhood obesity Poorer parental mental health Passive smoking Low(er) educational attainment Adult homelessness Source: Cooper & Stewart (2017), Cooper & Stewart (2015), Bramley & Fitzpatrick (2017),
Cumulative impact Child mental wellbeing & income Source: Scottish Health Survey Children, passive smoking & income Source: Scottish Health Survey
Long-term risks Homelessness Using data from the British Cohort Study, Bramley and Fitzpatrick (2017) highlight the importance of childhood poverty in contributing to the increased risk of adult homelessness. They conclude: Our analysis also emphatically underlines the centrality of poverty to the generation of homelessnessaction on addressing child poverty ought to be an overriding policy
priority in this field (Bramley and Fitzpatrick, 2017: 18-19) Long-term risks Educational attainment Analyses of Growing Up in Scotland found that by age 5, children in low-income households had vocabulary development that was 13months behind and problem solving that was 10 months behind that of children living in high-income households (Bradshaw, 2011). In their review of the educational gap in Scotland, Sosu and Ellis (2014) note that: "If schools are to close the gap, they must be supported by anti-poverty strategies aimed at reducing income inequality....A key
message for Scotland is that reducing the attainment gap must involve concrete strategies that increase income levels to families living in poverty." (Sosu and Ellis, 2014: 38) ScotPHO Profiles Will be launched end September 2017: Updated Children and Young People's Profiles Community Health and Wellbeing profiles (2011 DZs) Questions?
Causes of Child poverty Employment status In-work poverty: wages, hours, insecurity, progression Costs of living: housing, childcare, fuel Social security benefits, including tax credits Educational attainment (a dual role) Underpinned by structural factors e.g. local and national housing and labour markets Individual factors: fitness to work, skills and qualifications
Health Inequalities: theory of causation Levels of interventions UK level state interventions welfare, taxation, benefits Devolved (Scottish) e.g. welfare powers to mitigate against unfair UK welfare bedroom tax; housing, education, childcare Local actions those which LA and CPPs have the
power to deliver to local populations: services, education, employment Types of intervention: Prevent, Mitigate, Undo Three approaches to reducing (child) poverty and health inequalities: Prevent - across national and local services and sectors
Mitigate - across local service provision and response Undo - UK and Scottish Government level actions Strategies to reduce child poverty Mitigation and prevention Income maximization and employment Education Childcare Lone parenthood
Other important areas: health, disability, housing, transport, food insecurity, human rights, knowledge (McKendrick) Examples of Local Authority and CPP actions to provide sufficient income support to keep families out of poverty
Provide financial inclusion support to parents to access all eligible benefits Provide affordable housing of good quality
Provide free or affordable, high-quality flexible early learning and childcare Provide affordable public transport for parents and children in poverty Reduce the cost of the school day Protect investment in early years services Support parents into fair employment in order to maximise household incomes Identify areas and groups with the greatest needs Tackle in-work poverty, through the introduction of a true living wage Help reduce the poverty premium NHS and health inequalities
In terms of reducing health inequalities: Provide quality services with allocation of resources proportionate to need Training the NHS workforce to understand their role in reducing inequalities Effective partnership with different sectors to help reduce health inequalities Mitigation of inequalities through employment and procurement processes Advocating to reduce health inequalities
Examples of good practice The Healthier, Wealthier Children (HWC) project The Cost of the School Day Free School Meals policy Summer school camps Impact of actions Difficult to assess impact of local actions few
robust or published evaluations Lots of examples of good practice but less so of effectiveness High level (state) interventions may have greater overall impact on child poverty than local actions? Summary Lots of potential areas for action by different organisations LA, NHS, public, private and
voluntary sector Needs a wide holistic approach targeting many of the causes of child poverty simultaneously Vulnerable people need identified early to allow for prevention or mitigation Local partnership action Public , private and voluntary sectors need to work in partnership to provide the knowledge and actions on what works to help reduce the
levels and consequences of child poverty in Scotland How can we improve the evidence base for local action? Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill update Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill
http://www.parliament.scot/Child%20Poverty%20(Scotland)%20Bill/SPBill06AS052017.pdf Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill Four statutory, income-based targets to be achieved by 2030: Less than 10% of children are in relative poverty. Less than 5% of children are in absolute poverty. Less than 5% of children are in combined low income and material deprivation. Less than 5% of children are in persistent poverty. All four targets are after housing costs.
SG to produce a series of Delivery Plans and report progress to Parliament Duty on local authorities and health boards to report annually on activity to contribute to reducing child poverty. Child Poverty (Scotland) Bill
Interim targets Delivery Plan Local action report Poverty & Inequality Commission Stage 3 - November Local child poverty action plan reports A local authority and each relevant Health Board must,
as soon as reasonably practicable after the end of each reporting year, jointly prepare and publish a report - must describe any measures taken and proposed must, in particular, describe income maximisation measures taken in the area of the local authority during the reporting year to provide pregnant women and families with children (a) information, advice and assistance about eligibility for financial support, & (b) assistance to apply for financial support.
Local child poverty action plan reports Statutory guidance in development Members of the C&YP PH Group on reference group Opportunity to influence and advise Template approach ? How much prescription? How should it sit in the context of other planning/reporting requirements ?
Potential support required What type of planning and delivery support are required at a local level? Child poverty: the role of Public Health Child poverty: the role of Public Health Raising awareness of the impact of CP in local context
Highlighting scope for action Bringing people together to create change Using real stories to make it real & bring issues alive Demonstrating the art of the possible Big stuff and little stuff Sharing experiences and learning What are the key CP drivers for your partnerships ?
What are we doing well? What would better look like? How could we use evidence and experience more effectively to make a difference?
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