lgebra Based Physics A Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 2015-09-25 www.njctl.org Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Click on the topic to go to that section Gravitational Force Gravitational Field Surface Gravity

Gravitational Field in Space Orbital Motion Kepler's Third Law of Motion Gravitational Force Return to Table of Contents https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=IP_u0xQvP04 Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation It has been well known

since ancient times that Earth is a sphere and objects that are near the surface tend fall down. Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation Newton connected the idea that objects, like apples, fall towards the center of Earth with the idea that the moon orbits around Earth...it's also falling towards the center of Earth. The moon just stays in circular

motion since it has a velocity perpendicular to its acceleration. https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=uhS8K4gFu4s Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation Newton concluded that all objects attract one another with a "gravitational force". The magnitude of the gravitational force decreases as the centers of the masses increases in distance. M1 MORE Gravitational attraction

M2 r M1 LESS Gravitational attraction r M2 Gravitational Constant G = 6.67 x 10-11 N-m2/kg2

In 1798, Henry Cavendish measured G using a torsion beam balance. He did not initially set out to measure G, he was instead trying to measure the density of the Earth. https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=2PdiUoKa9Nw Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation Mathematically, the magnitude of the gravitational force decreases with the inverse of the square of the distance between the centers of the masses and in proportion to the product of the masses. Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

The direction of the force is along the line connecting the centers of the two masses. Each mass feels a force of attraction towards the other mass...along that line. r Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation Newton's third law tells us that the force on each mass is equal. That means that if I drop a pen, the force of Earth pulling the pen down is equal to the force of the pen pulling Earth up. However, since the mass of Earth is so much larger, that force causes the pen to accelerate down, while the movement of Earth up is completely

unmeasurable. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between two 1 kg objects which are located 1.0 m apart? A 3.3 x 10-11 N B 1.7 x 10-11 N

C 2.7 x 10-10 N D 6.7 x 10-11 N https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=IP_u0xQvP04 Answer 1

What is the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on a 4.0 kg object which is 1.0 m from a 1.0 kg object? A 3.3 x 10-11 N B 1.7 x 10-11 N C 2.7 x 10-10 N

D 6.7 x 10-11 N https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=dPFsPm5UYhg Answer 2 What is the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on a 1.0 kg object which is 1.0 m from a 4.0 kg object?

A 3.3 x 10-11 N B 1.7 x 10-11 N C 2.7 x 10-10 N D

6.7 x 10-11 N https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=iOovJt1I8lc Answer 3 4 What is the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on a 1.0 kg object which is 2.0 m from a 4.0 kg object? 3.3 x 10-11 N

B 1.7 x 10-11 N C 2.7 x 10-10 N D 6.7 x 10-11 N Answer

A https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=tjkf5sqwLT0 A 2.0 x 1018 N B 2.0 x 1019 N C

2.0 x 1020 N D 2.0 x 1021 N https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=4MieN1BT4Yc Answer What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between Earth and its moon? r = 3.8 x 108m

mEarth = 6.0 x 1024kg mmoon = 7.3 x 1022 kg 5 What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between Earth and its sun? r = 1.5 x 1011 m mEarth = 6.0 x 1024kg msun = 2.0 x 1030 kg A 3.6 x 10-18 N

B 3.6 x 1019 N C 3.6 x 1021 N D 3.6 x 1022 N https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=mAC5GoXjJGE

Answer 6 * Gravitational Field Return to Table of Contents https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=p_OteaRhSsk

* Gravitational Field While the force between two objects can always be computed by using the formula for FG; it's sometimes convenient to consider one mass as creating a gravitational field and the other mass responding to that field. * Gravitational Field The magnitude of the gravitational field created by an object varies from location to location in space; it depends on the distance from the object and

the object's mass. Gravitational field, g, is a vector. It's direction is always towards the object creating the field. That's the direction of the force that a test mass would experience if placed at that location. In fact, g is the acceleration that a mass would experience if placed at that location in space. * Gravitational Field

7 Where is the gravitational field the strongest? E B Answer D A C What happens to the gravitational field if the distance from the center of an object doubles?

A It doubles B It quadruples C It is cut to one half D

It is cut to one fourth Answer 8* What happens to the gravitational field if the mass of an object doubles? A It doubles

B It quadruples C It is cut to one half D It is cut to one fourth https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=E1KR_75YClA

Answer 9* * Surface Gravity Return to Table of Contents * Surface Gravity

Planets, stars, moons, all have a gravitational field...since they all have mass. That field is largest at the object's surface, where the distance from the center of the object is the smallest...when "r" is the radius of the object. By the way, only the mass of the planet that's closer to the center of the planet than you are contributes to its gravitational field. So the field actually gets smaller if you tunnel down below the surface. R

M 10 Determine the surface gravity of Earth. Its mass is 6.0 x 1024 kg and its radius is 6.4 x 106 m. Answer * https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=oc8zZ7MNFtE Determine the surface gravity of Earth's moon. Its mass is

7.4 x 1022 kg and its radius is 1.7 x 106 m. Answer *11 https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=R63PGhOwbV8 Determine the surface gravity of Earth's sun. Its mass is 2.0 x 1030 kg and its radius is 7.0 x 108 m. Answer * 12

https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=d64u-4vMrHo Compute g for the surface of a planet whose radius is double that of the Earth and whose mass is triple that of Earth. Answer *13 https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=iUWtYR2gxsQ Gravitational Field

in Space Return to Table of Contents * Gravitational field in space While gravity gets weaker as you get farther from a planet, it never becomes zero. There is always some

gravitational field present due to every planet, star and moon in the universe. * Gravitational field in space The local gravitational field is usually dominated by nearby masses since gravity gets weaker as the inverse square of the distance. The contribution of a planet to the

local gravitational field can be calculated using the same equation we've been using. You just have to be careful about "r". * Gravitational field in space The contribution of a planet to the local gravitational field can be calculated using the same equation we've been using. You just have to be careful about "r". If a location, "A", is a height "h" above a planet of radius "R", it is a distance "r" from the planet's center, where r = R + h.

R M r h A Determine the gravitational field of Earth at a height of 6.4 x 106 m (1 Earth radius). Earth's mass is 6.0 x 1024 kg and its radius is 6.4 x 106 m. Answer

*14 https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=7Z_AZ2L53vs * 15 Determine the gravitational field of Earth at a height 2.88 x 108 m above its surface (the height of the moon above Earth). Answer Earth's mass is 6.0 x 1024 kg and its radius is 6.4 x

106 m. https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=q_Esi6tz1yk The International Space Station (ISS) The International Space Station (ISS) is a research facility, the on-orbit construction of which began in 1998. The space station is in a Low Earth Orbit and can be seen from Earth with the naked eye! It orbits at an altitude of approximately 350 km (190 mi) above the surface of the Earth, and travels at an average speed of 27,700 kilometers (17,210 mi) per hour. This means the astronauts see 15 sunrises everyday!

https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=4Kysw9_Xhi0 * 16 The occupants of the International Space Station (ISS) float and appear to be weightless. Determine the strength of Earth's gravitational field acting on astronauts in the ISS. Answer Earth's mass is 6.0 x 1024 kg and its radius is 6.4 x 106 m. The ISS is 350km (3.5 x 105m) above the surface of

Earth. https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=4Kysw9_Xhi0 * 17 How does the gravitational field acting on the occupants in the space station compare to the gravitational field acting on you now? It's the same B

It's slightly less C It's about half as strong D There is no gravity acting on them Answer A https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=DaDGZF-rPTY

** Orbital Motion Return to Table of Contents https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=Ah0inrolRgM Orbital Motion ** We've already determined that the gravitational field acting on the occupants

of the space station, and on the space station itself, is not very different than the force acting on us. R h r Earth ISS How come they don't fall to Earth?

This diagram should look really familiar. Orbital Motion ** The gravitational field will be pointed towards the center of Earth and represents the acceleration that a mass would experience at that location (regardless of the mass). d

Earth a ISS In this case any object would simply fall to Earth. How could that be avoided? ** Orbital Motion

If the object has a tangential velocity perpendicular to its acceleration, it will go in a circle. It will keep falling to Earth, but never strike Earth. v a https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=iQOHRKKNNLQ ** Here is Newton's own drawing of a thought experiment where a cannon on a very high mountain (above the atmosphere) shoots a

shell with increasing speed, shown by trajectories for the shell of D, E, F, and G and finally so fast that it never falls to earth, but goes into orbit. https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=oIZV-ixRTcY Orbital Motion ** Orbital Motion We can calculate the velocity necessary

to maintain a stable orbit at a distance "r" from the center of a planet of mass "M". v a https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=Ah0inrolRgM ** Orbital Motion From that, we can calculate the

period, T, of any object's orbit. o r v a Compute g at a distance of 7.3 x 108 m from the center of a spherical object whose mass is 3.0 x 1027 kg. Answer ** 18

https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=mRIBe_tA_eg Use your previous answer to determine the velocity, both magnitude and direction, for an object orbiting at a distance of 7.3 x 108 m from the center of a spherical object whose mass is 3.0 x 1027 kg. Answer ** 19 https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=kCWb0U-Y4Jg

Use your previous answer to determine the orbital period of for an object orbiting at a distance of 7.3 x 108 m from the center of a spherical object whose mass is 3.0 x 1027 kg. Answer ** 20 https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=5m1BuMWL5LI Compute g at a height of 59 earth radii above the surface of Earth.

Answer * 21 View solution https://youtu.be/CDdqUjsO8TM Use your previous answer to determine the velocity, both magnitude and direction, for an object orbiting at height of 59 RE above the surface of Earth. Answer

** 22 Use your previous answer to determine the orbital period of an object orbiting at height of 59 RE above the surface of Earth. Answer ** 23

** Kepler's Third Law of Motion https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=5vr5aiqDYyY Return to Table of Contents ** Orbital Motion

Now, we can find the relationship between the period, T, and the orbital radius, r, for any orbit. v a ** Kepler's Third Law Kepler had noted that the ratio of T2 / r3 yields the same result for all the planets. That is, the square of the period of any planet's orbit divided by the cube of its distance from the sun always yields the same number. We have now shown why: (42) / (GM) is a constant; its the same for all

orbiting objects, where M is the mass of the object being orbited; it is independent of the object that is orbiting. ** Kepler's Third Law If you know the period (T) of a planet's orbit, you can determine its distance (r) from the sun. Since all planets orbiting the sun have the same period to distance ratio, the following is true: T(white)2 =

T(green)2 r(whit e)3 r(gree n)3 The period of the Moon is 27.3 days and its orbital radius is 3.8 x 108m. What would be the orbital radius of an object orbiting Earth with a period of 20 days? Answer ** 24

https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=EqzMY3p5cyc What is the orbital period (in days) of an unknown object orbiting the sun with an orbital radius of twice that of earth? Answer ** 25 https://www.njctl.org/video/?v=itQif01ytNQ