BONDING REVIEW You must know this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ionic bonds happen with a metal and a nonmetal transferring electrons. Ionic bonds are never single, double or triple. Because of the positive and negative ions, ionic bonds are inherently polar Ionic bonds are the strongest of bonds, holding together by opposite charge. Ionic bonds form ionic compounds. 6. Aqueous ionic compounds contain loose ions in water, and these solutions will
conduct electricity. 7. Solutions that conduct electricity are electrolytes 8. Ionic compounds that cannot dissolve (ionize) in water are not electrolytes. 9. Ionic compounds that COULD ionize in water, but are still solids, are still electrolytes by definition, but cannot conduct electricity as solids 10. All ionic compounds that are melted contain loose ions and can conduct electricity 11. If youre a compound and your first name is a metal, you are ionic And this: 11. 2 or more non metals that share valence electrons are making covalent bonds. 12. Most atoms follow the octet rule when sharing electrons ( they fill outer orbital to 8e) 13.Skip this one, okay. 14. Electrons are shared evenly or not, depending upon the electronegativity differences between the atoms
15. An electronegativity difference of zero means the bond is nonpolar 16. A difference in electronegativity value means the bonds are polar 17. The greater the difference, the greater the bond polarity 18. Bonds are polar due to this electronegativity difference. 19. Molecules are polar depending upon their shape: Radial symmetry = nonpolar 20. Radial symmetry means cut through the center at any angle and you will get two exactly equal halves. 21. Molecules with radial symmetry are balanced and it the bonds show polarity, it is offset, or balanced. 22. Polar molecules are sticky and will have greater melting points, greater boiling points, and lower vapor pressure (wont evaporate as well) 23. You can rank molecules, predict their physical properties (MP, BP, VP) by their shapes/their molecular polarities
Metallic bonding 24. Metals are thought to be packed cations with loose valence electrons 25. This arrangement explains malleability, ductility, and electrical conduction 26. Metals melted together with other metals, or even nonmetals, form into alloys 27. Alloys have better properties that the pure metals they form from, such as durability, strength, or non-corrosiveness. Intermolecular bonding 30. There are three kinds of intermolecular bonding in High School Chem 31. The weakest is called ELECTRON DISPERSION, caused by the constant movement of the electrons. All atoms and all compounds have this. 32. We usually look to group 17 to help explain this idea 33. Electrons move fast but at an moment they are not spread out exactly evenly
in the orbital 34. This temporary, instantaneous dispersion of electrons causes spots of positive and negative to exist in the valence orbital of any atom or compounds. 35. These temporary polar spots are attracted to each other (when opposite) and this causes some weak but measurable intermolecular attraction. 36. The more electrons you have, the stronger these temporary moments of polarity can be: F2 and Cl2 have the fewest electrons, they are gases at STP because they have the weakest temporary moments of orbital polarity 37. Br2 has more electrons, and they move more and create stronger moments of polarity in the orbitals. Bromine is a liquid at STP because of this weak but ever strengthening attraction due to the movement of electrons. 38. I2 has the most electrons in group 17 and has the strongest intermolecular attraction called electron dispersion force, and is a SOLID at STP.
39. The 2nd intermolecular attraction is called DIPOLE ATTRACTION. This is caused by the semi-permanent molecular polarity of polar bonds in polar molecules. 40. SCl2 has polar bonds and does not have radial symmetry, so its a polar molecule. It has a positive side most of the time (sulfur) and a negative side most of the time (chlorines). Sulfur from one molecule is most often attracted to chlorines of another molecule. This opposite charge attraction is near constant. Its weak, but stronger than electron dispersion. 37. The more polar the bonds in the polar molecules, the stronger this dipole attraction is. 38. The third intermolecular attraction is called HYDROGEN BONDING. This is really just SUPER DUPER dipole attraction, which exists when hydrogen atoms are involved in the polar bonds.
39. Because (relatively speaking) the H atoms have such low electronegativity values, the polarity that can develop with H-F is so much greater when compared to the polarity between SCl2, they give this SUPER-DUPER DIPOLE a new name: hydrogen bonding. Odd Ball Bonding 44. Resonating bonds exist in O3 which is ozone. A double bond/single bond situation resonates back and forth because neither of these two bonds is stable as they seem to exist. This double/single reverses to single/double, and back over and over. (thats called resonating back and forth) 45. Coordinate covalent bonds exist when an atom helps another atom obtain an octet in an odd way. CO, carbon monoxide has a normal double polar covalent bond. This gives the oxygen an octet but not the carbon atom. In order to get an octet, the oxygen atom pushes two of its unshared pairs of
electrons into the middle so that the carbon can borrow them as well. 46. You cant have just a coordinate covalent bond, its a bonding modification that a real bond makes to accommodate unusual octet demand, as shown in the CO molecule. 47. PCl5 bonds in normal polar covalent bonds, but the phosphorous can get 10 valence electrons somehow. This breaks the octet rule, but it happens. 48. When ionic compounds dissolve into water, loose positive and loose negative ions float in the water. The water can only hold a certain amount of ions (the saturation level). 49. The water molecules will orient towards the loose ions. For example, positive sodium cations are surrounded by water molecules, but the negative oxygen sides of water point towards the + cations. . 50. The negative chloride ions in water will also be surrounded by water
molecules, but only by the positive hydrogen sides of the water molecules will point at these negative anions. You should instantly be able to decide if a compound is ionic or covalent You should know the difference between bond polarity and molecular polarity You should be able to determine which molecule has a lower vapor pressure (or higher BP) by its polarity, example: methane CH 4 and water H2O You should be able to rank bond polarity by electronegativity differences You should be able to rank intermolecular bond strength, giving examples of each You should be able to name bonds like: ionic, single/double/or triple, polar or nonpolar covalent bonds
You should know your vocabulary You should be able to draw ionic and covalent compounds as Lewis Dot diagrams. You should be able to draw covalent compounds as structural diagrams You should be able to explain the oddball bonding in ozone, carbon monoxide, phosphorous pentachloride You should be able to define and explain with examples allotropes (C or O) You should be able to answer all 100 Bonding questions (answers provided online)
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