Presented by Dr Ross James 1 2 3

Presented by Dr Ross James 1 2 3

Presented by Dr Ross James 1 2 3 What the university says a. Copyeditors must follow Guidelines agreed by ACGD and IPEd Curtin guidelines for editing b. Final comments from university and IPEd: This is your thesis the final responsibility for its integrity is yours.

CURTIN RESOURCES http://studyskills.curtin.edu.au/better-sentences/ http://studyskills.curtin.edu.au/good-grammar/ 4 What your supervisor should do 1. Provide editorial advice or substantive editing (structural or content editing). 2. Approve your choice to retain a copyeditor. 3. Help you decide about pragmatic options to replace APA styles. 5

What you should do 1. Give copyeditor clean and complete copy of thesis (not chapter by chapter; no unfinished sections!). 2. Give copyeditor the style guide the thesis must conform to. 3. Take responsibility for final product; review each suggested change or correction before accepting it. 4. Acknowledge the copyeditor. 6 What your copy editor will do (1/4) Edit for structure: big picture. Do the blocks of content hold the structure together as complete whole? Edit for flow: sentences. How do they work and feel? Are they a bridge

for the reader to flow from point to point, or do they require the reader to jump chasms of comprehension? Edit for errors: digging deep. Spelleeng, punchuation:, gramma, formatting, consistency. 7 What your copy editor will do (2/4) Restrict work to Australian standards for editing practice. 1. Copyediting (Standards D. Language and illustrations) clarity of expression accuracy of grammar, spelling and punctuation appropriate use of style and tone appropriate use of technical, specialised or foreign material appropriate, accurate, consistent use of illustrations, diagrams etc.

8 What your copyeditor will do (3/4) Restrict work to Australian standards for editing practice. 2. Proofreading (Standards E. Completeness and consistency) the integrity of all parts of the publication consistency in use of style, terminology, etc. grammar, punctuation and spelling

referencing illustrations and tables. 9 What your copyeditor will do (4/4) Provide you a written list of things they wont do. Provide you with a written quote and a Letter of Engagement to sign Make suggestions only! You are responsible for reviewing each change or correction suggested before accepting it.

Recommend you consult supervisor or university guidelines for issues of content. Provide the thesis with editing notes (if hardcopy) or tracking (if digital) 10 11 Copyediting with tracking 12 Copyediting with tracking

13 14 APA style 1. To guide authors submitting research papers. 2. Some APA styles seem irrelevant or undesirable in theses. 3. Your 3 or 4 examiners are unlikely to fail you on formatting. 4. I suggest pragmatic options. 5. Query what your supervisor means by APA style. Dont confuse APA style = referencing conventions and APA style = journal article formatting

15 APA style and pragmatic options Headings Table captions Figure captions Appendices 16 NOTE: APA does NOT ask for headings to be numbered by hierarchy (multilevel list format such as 1.; APA style: Headings 1.1; 1.1.1) but see pragmatic option.

Level 1 (Chapter headings): Centred, Bolded, Title Case (all Major Words Capitalized) * Level 2: Left-Aligned, Bolded, Title Case * Level 3: indented 1.27 cm, bolded, sentence case, ends with period.** In-line or Level 4: indent 1.27 cm, bolded, italicized, sentence case, ends with period.** run-in headings Level 5: indent 1.27 cm, not bolded, italicized, sentence case, ends with period.** * Capitalize second part of hyphenated words, e.g., Self-Reported ** First sentence of paragraph begins on the same line (inline or run-in heading). Capitalize first word after a colon and all proper nouns or adjectives. To create inline heading: Type heading-text > CNTL + ALT + ENTER > apply Heading 3 or 4 or 5 > type paragraph Inline headings 17

Pragmatic options to replace APA style Headings For long form theses you will find that numbered heading s will aid navigation and reading comprehension. The pragmatic option, then is: Do NOT indent Levels 3, 4 and 5, do NOT create inline headings. Number headings by hierarchy (multilevel listing is not based on chapter number) for levels 2-4 (not Level 1 nor Level 5). Level 1 (chapters): Centred, Bolded, Title Case (Major Words Capitalized) 1. Level 2: Left-Aligned, Bolded, Title Case 1.1 Level 3: leftmargin, bolded, sentence case, ends with period. 1.1.1 Level 4: leftmargin, bolded, italicized, sentence case, ends with period. 1.1.1.1 Level 5: leftmargin, not bolded, italicized, sentence case, ends period.

18 APA style and pragmatic options Table & figure captions APA Pragmatic Table 5.2 Table Caption Italics, Capitals, no Period Grade Students

1 2 54 76 Table 5.2 Table Caption no Italics, with Capitals, no Period Grade Students 1 2

54 76 Figure 5.2. Favourite movie genre Figure 5.2. Non-italicised figure label, no capitals, period. Figure 5.2. Caption for the figure without italics, no capitals but with a period. 19 APA style Tables & figures

APA style: code figure and table numbers to chapter numbers. Fonts between 8 and 14 point. Tables and figures must be mentioned in the text as (see Table 1.1/ Figure 1.1). Do NOT write on page . Position table and table label and title on left margin. If table is in unprintable area of the page reformat it OR autofit to contents Auto fit to contents 20 APA style Appendices: Referencing In the text

In the reference list APA example: label and Refer to the appendix by letter (A, B , etc) as they appear

in sequence: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet (see Appendix A) Sit amet ipsum dolor (see Appendix B) List them by letter (A, B, etc.) with a title in the same sequence they are introduced in the text. Appendix A (centre of page; not bold; no period; Example of APA appendix title 21 APA style and pragmatic option

List them by letter (A, B, etc.) with a title in the same In the sequence they are introduced in the text. reference Appendices: In the list list APA example: label and title and paragraph style

Pragmatic option for appendix label and title Appendix A (centre of page; not bold; no period; Example of APA appendix title (centre of page; not bold; Sentence capitalisation; no period ) First paragraph after appendix title : flush leftand not indented. Second and following paragraphs indented 1.27 cm as normal.

Appendix A. Example of a pragmatic appendix title (Leftmargin; not bold; Sentence capitalisation; label and title on same line; period after label then two spaces then title; no period after title ) 22 23 Spaces Create one space after periods at end of sentences. Because you are using a software program, not a typewriter! end of sentence. One space

end of sentence. Two spaces end of sentence. Three spaces Nonbreaking and end of sentence spaces 24 Remove double Symbols spaces after periods at end of sentences.

(First pass) Ctrl+H > Find and Replace > place cursor in Find wh a period followed by three spaces > place cursor in Replace wi a periods and a single space > click Replace all (Second pass) repeat above but insert two spaces where unde Ampersands (&) Only for author reference in brackets, never in text. APA allows & in tables to save space.

Open and closing lorem, (lorem), [lorem], {lorem} Do these symbols act as bookends (open and close)? Solution &: Do a simple search and correct as needed Bookends: 1. CTRL+H. Search for each opening bookend first then the closing bookend 2. Multiple symbol bookends

25 M-u-u-u-m! Throughout your thesis youve spelt public in public health without the L . 26 Hyphens, em and en dashes Hyphens (-) (also minus or negative)

An en dash An n dash An dash An em dash An m dash An dash 27 Hyphens, em and en dashes Hyphens (-) (also minus or negative) A punctuation mark that connects two things together as a single concept (compound words; e.g., self-report) or modifier (e.g., two-thirds) 20-30 (Never used with numbers)

2030 (An en dash is always used with numbers) Consumption of apples was frequent 4 or 5 times a day A space before or after a hyphen self - report - 4 self-report -4 28 Hyphens, em and en dashes An en dash An n dash An dash

Connects things that are related to each other by distance ranges of time: from 45-50 minutes ranges of numbers: of the 100 questionnaires 5-9 were not completed correctly ranges of space: they ran 15-20 kilometres; the area was 80-90 square metres A space before or after an en dash

45 50 minutes 4550 minutes 29 Hyphens, em and en dashes An em dash An m dash An dash Can take the place of commas (,) parentheses (such as these rackets) or colons (:) but the sentence will end with a period.

The questionnaires were designed wellwe expected nothing less. APA: no space before or after an em dash designed well we expected nothing less. designed wellwe expected nothing less. Create en- and em-dashes 30 31 Wordplay: spelling, compounds and confusions SPELLING

US or Australian English (e.g., iSe vs. iZe) Yes? No? Maybe? 32 Wordplay: spelling, compounds and confusions US or Australian spelling: Consistency! US AU US

traveling travelling supervize traveled travelled analyze instil & instal instil BUT install sterilization license licence color burned Burnt behavour

1 meter long usable usable or BUT one useable water meter paediatrician paediatrician catalog etc. AU: Macquarie Dictionary APA (US): Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary AU

supervise analyse sterilisation colour behaviour 1 metre long BUT one water meter catalogue 33 Wordplay: spelling, compounds and confusions Compound words

In general: too complex to summarise Convention changes (e.g., database and lifestyle not so long ago required a hyphen) See APA 6th ed. Consult most recent dictionary (e.g., Macquarie) Compounds 34 Wordplay: spelling, compounds and confusions Confusions Although vs. While Incorrect use of the verb highlighted Based on /Due to

Whose study, research? Between or Among Socioeconomics or socio-economics Could be used Well-being or wellbeing Fewer or less Followup vs. Follow-up vs. Follow up This Thesis or research or study Internet While, When, Where and Since Words ending in ing That vs. Which vs. Who Different From or Different To or Different Than

Confusions 35 of e c n se b a e s a Th

m om c o w t him d e rm o f s n

d! o tra g x se a o t in Making love to me is amazing. Wait! I meant: making love, to me, is

amazing. Dark Jar Tin Zoo Love Quotes for the Ages. Specifically Ages 19-91 36 Commas, AND and other conjunctions in a series The Oxford comma before and, nor, or or is recommended APA requires a serial commaa final comma before the final conjunction Before the first and for clarity where two or more ands are used within the series. The participants joined the aquatic therapy class to improve strength, balance, and increase flexibility and muscle performance. When and coordinates two independent clauses. A clause has a subject, verb and stands alone as a sentence. (Also for all coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet).

The participants joined the aquatic therapy class, and they improved their strength and balance. But not when and does not join two independent clauses. And joins two verbs: took and is. The participant took aquatic therapy lessons and is now fully functional 37 Lists: colons, semicolons, periods, numbers, letters To introduce lists in a paragraph, use a colon ( : ) not a semicolon ( ; ). There were 10 items: There were 10 items; Use semicolons for seriation if there are commas within the items. The research team consists of (a) the research coordinator, Dr Mary Bloggs, who will visit the health centre each day; (b) the supervisor, Bill Blenkinsop; and (c) three quality control inspectors: Tom Tank-engine, Willy Wonka, and Ken

Kangaroo. Use a period, not parentheses, for a series with numbers: 1. Lorem ipsum ... Use parentheses for a series with letters: (a) Lorem ipsum 38 Lists and punctuation https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/16/ 39 40 Abbr. Latin:

brevis short Abbreviations APA says use abbreviations: sparingly, only if used more than three times in thesis, and explain it first time it occurs, such as: American Psychological Association (APA). without explanation if commonly used within a discipline (STI, HIV etc). But include it in a list of acronyms and abbreviations. Do not explain again even in section headings (exception: tables & figures, which stand alone). (Heading) 2.3.5 HIV myths Table 2.5 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Myths

Abbr. Latin: brevis short Abbreviations (cf. Smith et al., 2010 and Allen, 2008) does not use comma. (e.g., a heart attack) uses a comma. * (Smith et al., 2010) uses a comma. * (health promotion, programme evaluation, etc.) uses a comma before if ending a list of two or more items. (i.e., a piece of fruit) uses a comma. * . . . the analysis (intervention vs. control) uses a period. * APA requirement, but Australian convention is no comma unless required for a pause or clarity.

Oh no! Not . . .? Now? So soon? Do we have to? Please, no . . . 43 Numbers and statistics Numbers The slash

Doing it yourself? My eight top tips 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Print it out and read it. On-screen reading is awkward. Read text slowly and aloud. Use a blank sheet of paper to cover the material not yet proofread.

Point with your finger to read one word at a time. Proofread in stages: one for spelling, another for formatting, etc. Fine print: give it special attention Turn copy upside down to check alignment of page elements (e.g., line spacing, word spacing, general format, type quality) 8. Highlight problems as you notice them, but dont stop to make changes; it slows you down and distracts you. "No passion in the world is equal to the passion to alter someone else's draft. H.G. Wells

47 APA style blog http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/ [email protected] 49 You write to communicate to the hearts and minds of others whats burning inside you. And we edit to let the fire show through the smoke. ~ Arthur Plotnik Author of Elements of Editing The Elements of Expression: Putting Thoughts Into

Words and, best of all, Better Than Great: A Plenitudinous Compendium of Wallopingly Fresh Superlatives 50

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