ism: niverse in endless cycles of time, progressive

ism: niverse in endless cycles of time, progressive

ism: niverse in endless cycles of time, progressive half-cycle, then degenerative half cycle 4 Jinas (conquerors)/Tirthankaras (ford-builders) in each half-c havira (c. 599-527 BC)

Born Kshatriya Dedicated to ahimsa (non-violence Becomes mendicant ascetic at 30 twelve and a half years attains k upreme enlightenment) and becomes th Jina em of karmic matter trapping soul

msara for moksha at 72 c. AD Jainism has split into Digam y-clad) and Shvetambara (white-cla ups fering attitudes over clothes, scr

women re about 5 million Jains? e number of immaterial, eternal sou ped in bodies as gods, humans, hel gs, animals, plants and desires attract material karma h clouds consciousness, leading to

of same, and also causing recipro ering and rebirth after death mans can attain liberation n liberation by stopping attracting pelling, karmic matter soul pure and hope for right rcumstances, leading to path of

evitable liberation Faith, Right Knowledge, Right Prac reat Vows/Restraints: Refrain from Injuring life False speech Taking what is not given Being unchaste Having possessions

Practices: Meditation, aiming to attain enlightenment Fatal trance at end of life ities of laypeople: ws to refrain from violence, lying stealing, illicit sex, attachment

possessions her acts incl. worhip of Jinas, su of monks/nuns ins are vegetarian, avoid professi where might have to do harm, and often work for public welfare vities of laypeople:

Prayer and meditation Worship of Jinas at temples, someti other deities (e.g. gods of pla Sarasvati [Goddess of Learning] Fasts, festivals and pilgrimages Rituals associated with life stages

as oldest continuously-existing rel munity ependence of monks/nuns and laypeop ence of women y based on nonviolence, quest for ightenment, welfare of all

ssionary religion m: h c. In India, Muslim rule, but ma Hindu population Hindu monotheism and Sufi Islam exchanging ideas

Love of and mystical devotion to G (1469-1539) born Hindu Kshatriya b o educated in Islam 30 disappears while bathing for 3 encounter with God and becomes gu (dispeller of ignorance) ru (br enlightenment)

s spreading message of one God, un igious paths and futility of tradi uals ettles in India, builds dharmasala hs (disciples) ded by 9 gurus, last of which is G

gh (1666-1708) uru Gobind founds khalsa (pure) or e Ks: kais (uncut hair), kangha ( kirpan (sword/dagger), kara (wrist guard), kachha (short pants) ed on joining khalsa: Singh (lion en) or Kaur (princess, for women

th (holy text of Sikhs) llion Sikhs, mostly in India (esp. verse as emanation of Gods being as personal deity and true Guru bination of monism and monotheism

an soul as part of emanation from G Upon death, fate determined by kar but normally rebirth to achieve union with God and esca cycle of death/rebirth behaviour, not loving God allowing ama, Lord of Death, to trap soul i ycle of death/rebirth

self-transformation through teach f gurus in Adi Granth, leading ventually to union with God ice, ritual, worship ara (Sikh temple) worship: venerat eadings with commentary, hymns, erving of karah parsad

religious observances: oly festivals throughout year ites of passage incl. khalsa initia h values: Love of God, expressed through dedication to work, worship an

charity Cultivation of wisdom, truthfulne justice, moderation and selfcontrol, contentment, courage Diligence, honesty, altruism and tolerance

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