Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes Copies of

Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes Copies of

Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes Copies of the genetic information are made. Gametes are made in reproductive organs (in animals ovaries and testes) Cells divide by meiosis to form gametes The cell divides twice to form four gametes each with single set of chromosomes. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female gametes. Sperm and egg in animals. Pollen and egg cells in flowering plants. Produced by meiosis. There is mixing of genetic information which leads to a variety in the offspring. DNA is polymer made from four different nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a common sugar, phosphate group and one of 4 different bases A, C, G & T Asexual reproduction Only mitosis is involved. There is e.g. cloning of All gametes are genetically involves only one no mixing of genetic females only in an Gametesdifferent join atfrom each other. parent and no fusion of information. This leads to aphid population. clones. fertilisation to The new cell divides by mitosis. The gametes. When the protein chain is completegenetically it folds to identical form a unique shape. This allows Advantages and number of cells increase. As the embryo restore the number proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or new structures such as collagen. develops cells differentiate. disadvantages of sexual of chromosomes Some change the shape and asexual reproduction Most do not Meiosis leads to non-identical cells being (HT) Making new proteins and affect the function of alter the (Biology only) Meiosis (protein synthesis) formed while mitosis leads to identical cells proteins e.g. and enzyme protein so that being formed active site will change or a its appearance Composed of chains of Reproduction advantages/disadvantages structural protein loses its amino acids. A sequence of or function is DNA and Sexual and asexual reproduction strength Sexual Asexual 3 bases codes for a not changed. particular amino acid. the genome Needs two Only one parent AQA GCSE INHERITANCE, Mutations occur parents. needed (quicker). Genetic material in the continuously (HT only) DNA in the nucleus unravels. VARIATION AND Produces variation Identical offspring nucleus is composed of In DNA the Protein in the offspring. (no variation). EVOLUTION Part 1 a chemical called DNA. complementa Enzymes make a copy of the synthesis DNA strand called mRNA. ry strands C, If the (HT only) DNA structure DNA structure A, T, G always environment Vulnerable to changes variation rapidly changing (Biology only) link in the mRNA moves from the Polymer made up of two gives a survival conditions due to nucleus to ribosome in the same way. C strands forming a advantage by lack of variation. cytoplasm. always linked double helix. natural selection. to G on the Ribosomes translate each 3 opposite Negative Negative mutation Contained in structures bases into amino acids strand and A mutations are not can affect all called chromosomes. A according to mRNA template The genome is to T. always inherited. offspring. gene is a small section of the entire DNA on a chromosome. Phosphate Repeating Each gene codes for a genetic material and sugar Natural selection Ribosomes link amino acids nucleotide units. back bone sequence of amino acids of an organism. can by speeded Food/medicine brought by carrier proteins. to make a specific up using selective production can be ribose protein. breeding to extremely quick. (HT only) Not all parts code for sugar increase food proteins. Non-coding parts can switch A long chain of amino acids production. phosphate form. Their specific order

genes on and off. Mutations may base group forms a specific protein. affect how genes are expressed. Malarial Asexually in the human host but parasites sexually in a mosquito. Searching for genes linked to A sequence of 3 bases is the different types of disease. code for a particular amino Asexually by spores, sexually to Some Fungi give variation. acid. The order of bases Understanding and treatment organisms use The whole It is of great of inherited disorders. controls the order in which both methods human importance depending on each amino acid is assemble genome for future the has now to produce a specific protein. Produce seeds sexually, asexually medical circumstances been Plants by runners in strawberry plants, developments Tracing migration patterns nucleotide studied. bulbs division in daffodils. from the past. better hope brighter future Copies of the genetic information are made. Sexual Asexual Needs two parents. Only one parent needed (quicker). Produces variation in the offspring. Identical offspring (no variation). Negative mutations are not always inherited. Natural selection can by speeded up using selective breeding to increase food production. Gametes join at fertilisation to The new cell divides by mitosis. The number of cells increase. As the embryo restore the number develops cells differentiate. of chromosomes Meiosis leads to non-identical cells being Meiosis formed while mitosis leads to identical cells being formed DNA and the genome Sexual and asexual reproduction Genetic material in the nucleus is composed of a chemical called DNA. Negative mutation can affect all offspring. Food/medicine production can be extremely quick. Malarial parasites Asexually in the human host but sexually in a mosquito. Fungi Asexually by spores, sexually to give variation. Plants Produce seeds sexually, asexually by runners in strawberry plants, bulbs division in daffodils. Some change the shape and affect the function of proteins e.g. and enzyme active site will change or a structural protein loses its strength DNA structure (Biology only) Polymer made up of two strands forming a double helix. Contained in structures called chromosomes. A gene is a small section of DNA on a chromosome. Each gene codes for a sequence of amino acids to make a specific protein. Only mitosis is involved. There is e.g. cloning of no mixing of genetic females only in an information. This leads to aphid population. clones. When the protein chain is completegenetically it folds to identical form a unique shape. This allows proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or new structures such as collagen. AQA GCSE INHERITANCE, VARIATION AND EVOLUTION Part 1 DNA structure Vulnerable to rapidly changing conditions due to lack of variation. Produced by meiosis. There is mixing of genetic information which leads to a variety in the offspring. Pollen and egg cells in flowering plants. All gametes are genetically different from each other. Advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction (Biology only) If the environment changes variation gives a survival advantage by natural selection. The cell divides twice to form four gametes each with single set of chromosomes. The genome is the entire genetic material of an organism.

Phosphate and sugar back bone (HT only) Not all parts code for proteins. Non-coding parts can switch genes on and off. Mutations may affect how genes are expressed. Most do not alter the protein so that its appearance or function is not changed. Mutations occur continuously (HT only) Protein synthesis (HT only) DNA is polymer made from four different nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a common sugar, phosphate group and one of 4 different bases A, C, G & T Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes Cells divide by meiosis to form gametes Sperm and egg in animals. DNA in the nucleus unravels. In DNA the complementa ry strands C, A, T, G always link in the same way. C always linked to G on the opposite strand and A to T. Repeating nucleotide units. phosphate group base better hope brighter future mRNA moves from the nucleus to ribosome in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes translate each 3 bases into amino acids according to mRNA template Ribosomes link amino acids brought by carrier proteins. A long chain of amino acids form. Their specific order forms a specific protein. A sequence of 3 bases is the code for a particular amino acid. The order of bases controls the order in which each amino acid is assemble to produce a specific protein. Understanding and treatment of inherited disorders. Tracing migration patterns from the past. Enzymes make a copy of the DNA strand called mRNA. ribose sugar Searching for genes linked to different types of disease. It is of great importance for future medical developments Composed of chains of amino acids. A sequence of 3 bases codes for a particular amino acid. nucleotide Copies of the genetic information are made. Produced by meiosis. There is mixing of genetic information which leads to a variety in the offspring. All gametes are genetically different from each other. Advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction (Biology only) Gametes join at fertilisation to The new cell divides by mitosis. The number of cells increase. As the embryo restore the number develops cells differentiate. of chromosomes Meiosis leads to non-identical cells being Meiosis formed while mitosis leads to identical cells being formed DNA and the genome Needs two parents. Only one parent needed (quicker). Produces variation in the offspring. Identical offspring (no variation). Sexual and asexual reproduction Genetic material in the nucleus is composed of a chemical called DNA. Negative mutations are not always inherited. Natural selection can by speeded up using selective breeding to increase food production. Some change the shape and affect the function of proteins e.g. and enzyme active site will change or a structural protein loses its strength AQA GCSE INHERITANCE, VARIATION AND EVOLUTION Part 1 DNA structure (Biology only) DNA structure If the environment changes variation gives a survival advantage by natural selection. Only mitosis is involved. There is no mixing of genetic information. This leads to clones. When the protein chain is completegenetically it folds to identical form a unique shape. This allows proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or new structures such as collagen. Vulnerable to rapidly changing conditions due to lack of variation. Negative mutation can affect all offspring. Food/medicine production can be extremely quick. Contained in structures called chromosomes. A

gene is a small section of DNA on a chromosome. Each gene codes for a sequence of amino acids to make a specific protein. The genome is the entire genetic material of an organism. Phosphate and sugar back bone (HT only) Not all parts code for proteins. Non-coding parts can switch genes on and off. Mutations may affect how genes are expressed. Asexually in the human host but sexually in a mosquito. Most do not alter the protein so that its appearance or function is not changed. Mutations occur continuously (HT only) Protein synthesis (HT only) DNA is polymer made from four different nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a common sugar, phosphate group and one of 4 different bases A, C, G & T Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes The cell divides twice to form four gametes each with single set of chromosomes. DNA in the nucleus unravels. In DNA the complementa ry strands C, A, T, G always link in the same way. C always linked to G on the opposite strand and A to T. Repeating nucleotide units. phosphate group base Tracing migration patterns from the past. nucleotide better hope brighter future Ribosomes translate each 3 bases into amino acids according to mRNA template Ribosomes link amino acids brought by carrier proteins. A long chain of amino acids form. Their specific order forms a specific protein. A sequence of 3 bases is the code for a particular amino acid. The order of bases controls the order in which each amino acid is assemble to produce a specific protein. Understanding and treatment of inherited disorders. Produce seeds sexually, asexually by runners in strawberry plants, bulbs division in daffodils. mRNA moves from the nucleus to ribosome in the cytoplasm. ribose sugar Searching for genes linked to different types of disease. Asexually by spores, sexually to give variation. Enzymes make a copy of the DNA strand called mRNA. DNA and the genome Sexual and asexual reproduction Genetic material in the nucleus is composed of a chemical called DNA. When the protein chain is complete it folds to form a unique shape. This allows proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or new structures such as collagen. Some change the shape and affect the function of proteins e.g. and enzyme active site will change or a structural protein loses its strength AQA GCSE INHERITANCE, VARIATION AND EVOLUTION Part 1 DNA structure (Biology only) DNA structure The genome is the entire genetic material of an organism. Phosphate and sugar back bone (HT only) Not all parts code for proteins. Non-coding parts can switch genes on and off. Mutations may affect how genes are expressed. Mutations occur continuously (HT only) Protein synthesis (HT only) DNA is polymer made from four different nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a common sugar, phosphate group and one of 4 different bases A, C, G & T Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes Advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction (Biology only) Gametes join at fertilisation to The new cell divides by mitosis. The number of cells increase. As the embryo restore the number develops cells differentiate. of chromosomes Meiosis leads to non-identical cells being Meiosis formed while mitosis leads to identical cells being formed Repeating nucleotide units. ribose sugar phosphate group base A sequence of 3 bases is the code for a particular amino acid. The order of bases controls the order in which each amino acid is assemble to produce a specific protein. nucleotide better hope brighter future

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