Principles First, Strategies Second Indiana Principal Leadership Institute
Principles First, Strategies Second Indiana Principal Leadership Institute 2014 A hypocrite is the kind of politician who would cut down a redwood tree, then mount the stump and make a speech for conservation. Adlai E. Stevenson II
Hypocrisy: The moment you tell someone it is not important to be right, in order to look right to everyone else. Shannon L. Alder I care not for a man's religion whose dog and cat are not the better for it. Abraham Lincoln
Did you hear about.? A student is not an interruption of our workthe student is the purpose of it. We are not doing a favor by serving the studentthe student is doing us a favor by giving
us the opportunity to do so. -- William W. Purkey from an L.L. Bean Co. poster: What is a customer? by J.M. Eaton Forged by the operating tenets with which we perceive the world and conduct our actions.
Effective educators regularly assess these principles for validity and revise them in light of new evidence/ perspective. In teaching and leadership, we seek
integrity: Our actions reflect our principles. Put another way: We minimize our hypocrisies. M I N
D S E T Four-fifths of my students keep failing their tests! Well, screw em, if they cant study!
What Were We Thinking? Everyone in the same subject in this grade level is on the same page on the same day of the week Plan accordingly because there is no more paper supply after January
The master schedule cannot be changed to accommodate a compelling guest speaker. Students cannot re-do final exams. Sacrifice good pedagogy because people who are untrained are telling you what to do. What Were We Thinking?
We cant incorporate a new app in our lessons because it promotes the use of personal technology that school hasnt sanctioned. Our new students are three grade levels below grade level proficiencies but they have to do well on the final exam anyway. We cant take that field trip with the class because
that would be too much time away from preparing for the annual state or provincial exam. Stop being so creative, a colleague comments. Youre making me look bad. Equal
Fair Sample Teaching/Learning Principles Oxygen/Nutrient-Filled Bloodflow When the Body is in Survival Mode Vital Organs
Areas associated with growth Areas associated with social activity Cognition Creating Background Where There is None Tell the story of the Code of Hammurabi before discussing the Magna Charta.
Before studying the detailed rules of baseball, play baseball. Before reading about how microscopes work, play with micros copes. Before reading the Gettysburg Address, inform students that Lincoln was dedicating a cemetery.
Creating Background Where There is None Before reading a book about a military campaign or a murder mystery with references to chess, play Chess with a student in front of the class, or teach them the basic rules, get enough boards, and ask the class to play. In math, we might remind students of previous patterns as they
learn new ones. Before teaching students factorization, we ask them to review what they know about prime numbers. In English class, ask students, How is this storys protagonist moving in a different direction than the last storys protagonist? In science, ask students, Weve seen how photosynthesis reduces carbon dioxide to sugars and oxidizes water into
oxygen, so what do you think the reverse of this process called, respiration, does? Prime the brain prior to asking students to do anyPriming learning
means we show experience. students: 1) What they will get out of the experience (the objectives) 2) What they will encounter as they go through the experience
(itinerary, structure) Negating Students Incorrect Responses While Keeping Them in the Conversation
Act interested, Tell me more about that Empathy and Sympathy: I used to think that, too, or I understand how you could conclude that Alter the reality:
-- Change the question so that the answer is correct -- Thats the answer for the question Im about to ask -- When student claims he doesnt know, ask, If you DID know, what would you say?
Negating Students Incorrect Responses and While Them in the Conversation Affirm risk-taking
Allow the student more time or to ask for assistance Focus on the portions that are correct Remember: Whoever is responding to students is processing the information and learning. Who, then, should be
responding to students in the classroom? Students. Components of Blood Content Matrix Red Cells
Purpose Amount Carries 02 and nutrients 5,000,000 per cc
Size & Shape Small, round,like Cheerios
Nucleus ? No Where
formed Bone marrow, spleen White Cells
Plasma Platelets The students rough draft: Red blood cells carry oxygen and
nutrients around the body. They are small and indented in the middle, like little Cheerios. There are 5 million per cc of blood. There is no nucleus in mature red blood cells. They are formed in the bone marrow and spleen.
[Artist Unknown Determining Policies/Actions based on Principles What do all of these have in common?
Bernoulli Principle The Doppler Effect Refraction Newtons Laws Principle a fundamental truth or proposition that serves as the foundation
for a system of belief or behavior or for a chain of reasoning. a rule or belief governing one's personal behavior. morals, morality, (code of) ethics, beliefs, ideals, standards a general scientific theorem or law that has numerous special applications across a wide field. a natural law forming the basis for the construction or working of a machine.
-- Chrome search, December 16, 2013 Personal Principles of Pedagogy What are your top 5 nonnegotiable principles of teaching/learning?
For each principle, identify evidence of it in your practices or policies.
If there is no evidence, why not? If there is evidence, how do you know it works?
In your small groups, ask for critique:
Declare a principle/policy and its evidence of use. The group reflects with you whether or not the evidence truly represents the principle. If the evidence is inadequate, the group must decide what evidence of policy and practice would best manifest the principle.
To identify some of these principles, reflect on the bigger questions: How does my approach reflect what we know about students this age?
Why do we grade students? Does our current approaches best serve students? How do we communicate with parents? How does assessment inform our practice? Is what were doing fair and developmentally appropriate? How can we counter the negative impact of poverty/mobility/issues on our students learning?
What role does practice play in mastery? What is mastery for each curriculum we teach? What is homework, and how much should it count in the overall grade? How are our current structures limiting us? Whose voice is not heard in our deliberations?
What do we know about differentiated practices and the latest in cognitive theory and how are those aspects manifest in our classrooms? If not, why not? Are we mired in complacency? Are we doing things just to perpetuate what has always been done? Are we open to others points of view why or why not?
Does our report card express what were doing in the classroom? How are modern classrooms different from classrooms thirty years ago? Where will our practices look like 15 years from now? To what extent do we allow state, provincial, country, or international exams to influence our classroom practices?
Identify the Principles Involved, THEN Gather the Solutions Example: How do I grade English Language Learners? Principles/Tenets Involved: Teachers must be ethical. They cannot knowingly falsify a score or grade.
To be useful, grades must be accurate reports of evidence of students performance against standards. Regular report cards report against regular, publicly declared standards/outcomes. They cannot report about irregular standards or anything not publicly declared. Any test format that does not create an accurate report
of students degree of evidence of standards must be changed so that it does or replaced by one that does. Identify the Principles Involved, THEN Gather the Solutions Example: How do I grade English Language Learners? Principles Involved: (Continued)
English Language Learners have a right to be assessed accurately. Lack of language proficiency does not mean lack of content proficiency. Effective teachers are mindful of cultural and experiential bias in assessments and try to minimize their impact.
If teachers act upon these principles, what decisions/behaviors/policies should we see in their assessment and grading procedures? Principles create moral imperative.
What goes unachieved in students because we chose to be politically safe? Students should be allowed to re-do assessments until
they achieve acceptable mastery, and they should be given full credit for having achieved such. A Perspective that Changes our Thinking:
A D is a cowards F. The student failed, but you didnt have enough guts to tell him. -- Doug Reeves Recovering in full from a failure teaches more than being labeled for failure ever could teach.
Its a false assumption that giving a student an F or wagging an admonishing finger from afar builds moral fiber, self-discipline, competence, and integrity. We dont let a students
immaturity dictate his learning and thereby his destiny. Re-Dos &
Re-Takes: Are They Okay? More than okay! After 10,000 tries, heres a working
light bulb. Any questions? Thomas Edison F.A.I.L. First Attempt in
Learning In addition to students learning, should a teacher be evaluated by her principles, by the degree to which her actions match
her principles, or should neither of these be considered? Principles: What Do They Mean for Policy and Practice?
Directions: Choose the principles for which you have strong opinions first. For each one: What does full support of this principle mean for you? Look at both policies and practices, including those you do not currently have in place as well as those you do. Brainstorm here let your
imagination really explore ramifications. Professionalism Principles Teachers are responsible for their own professional development.
The nature of relationships among the adults within a school has a greater influence on the character and quality of that school and on student accomplishment than anything else. - Roland S. Barth
Just because we cant fathom the logistics doesnt mean we abandon the principle. We cant be creative unless were willing to be confused. Margaret Wheatley
I will not sacrifice effective pedagogy because people without training in teaching are setting policy. We cant drive forward by looking in the rearview mirror. (Rearview-Mirror Effect, White, 2011)
Everyone needs to save face, be honored. At any given moment, every person is usually doing the best they can. Our future depends on the individuals
who break from conventional practices. How Students Best Learn Principles
Chance favors the prepared mind. (Pasteur) What students learn is influenced by their existing ideas. When connections form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are
better able to retrieve and apply their knowledge effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it appropriately. (Carnegie Melon) Memorization is still important in a,
You can always look it up world. Personal processing, meaning-making after initial learning, has more impact than my presentation of content to students. Learning is fundamentally an act of creation,
not consumption of information. (Sharon L. Bowman, Professional Trainer) Collaboration increases learning; isolation and competition decrease it. (Sharon L. Bowman, Professional Trainer)
Emotion drives attention, attention drives learning. -- Robert Sylwester, 1995, p. 119, Wolfe Students learn at different rates of speed. Strict, unwavering adherence to pacing mandates,
regardless of student need, is willful act of failure. We should teach in the ways students best learn, not the way we best learn. Progression in learning is usually from the concrete to the abstract.
All thinking begins with wonder. -- Socrates The brain is innately social. Changing standards alone will not
improve student achievement. We cant get creative students from non-creative classrooms. Teacher are no longer the only oracle or final arbiter of knowledge.
My testimony as a teacher is what students carry forward at the end of my lessons, not what I presented to them during those lessons. Whoever does the editing does the learning.
Carrots and sticks motivation systems dont work for cognitive learning and growth. Students motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn. (Carnegie Melon)
Homework is practice of what has already been learned, not for learning content for the very first time. Assess/Grading Principles When instructing and grading,
I am criterion-referenced, not norm-referenced. The important question is not, What is the standard? The most important question is, What evidence of the standard will we tolerate as indicators of mastery?
Grades are communication, not compensation. Anything that diffuses the accuracy of a grade is removed from our grading practice. We cannot conflate reports of compliance with evidence of mastery.
Just because something is mathematically easy to calculate doesnt mean its pedagogically correct. Averaging scores distorts the accuracy of grades reported for any one individual.
Assessment accuracy increases with sample size and multiple assessments. Being good at taking standardized tests doesnt qualify students for creative contribution to society. Removing students from p.e., fine and performing arts
classes in order to double up on reading and math classes for standardized test success actually does more harm than good. Recovering in full from failure teaches more than being labeled for failure can teach. We should not let a students lack of developmnt
dictate his learning, and thereby, his destiny. Fair isnt always equal, and I will always be fair. Formative, descriptive feedback is critical to a students success, but such
feedback loses its instructional impact when the formative task is judged or evaluated. Parroting is not mastery. Skillful, intellectual agility is. I teach for mastery.
If students can articulate the learning goal and their position in relation to it, they can achieve it significantly more often. Scenarios/
Hypotheticals A Two students struggle with graphing the intersection of two inequalities, so the teacher asks them to graph only one instead. A student gets 100% on a pre-test, so the teacher asks the
student to do a personal research topic related to the general subject of the unit for the duration of their studies. B All students in Mr. Browns class keep journals in math. The type of journal matches each students strengths and interests. For example, one journal is for the students whose
verbal skills are stronger than their math skills. Students keep a list of math terms learned in class and then use the terms in sentences. Another journal is for students have good visualspatial skills. These students draw pictures to remind them of math vocabulary. C Upon receiving his paper and reading the poor grade recorded
at the top, a student looks the teacher in the eye and says loud enough for the class to hear: You bitch! The teacher raises or lowers what she expects of students regarding the grade level curriculum based on their developmental level, and she adjusts her assignments for them accordingly.
D In the same 30 minutes, advanced students get 25 math problems while struggling students are assigned only five. A student who seems to mix up decimal places and place values in his math problems is asked to do his work on graph paper, even on tests, thereby keeping his numbers clearly within their columns.
E The student didnt use his time wisely on this weeks project. As a result, he submits a very poor version of what he can normally achieve, and it receives a low grade. The teacher lets the student re-do the project over the next few days, however, and he does it well. The teacher then attributes full
credit to the student for having mastered the relevant standards. The teacher gives students a list of 50 methods to represent their learning for the final project and asks them to choose any two of them to complete. F
Six students are identified as gifted/advanced in a particular subject, so the teacher spreads them throughout her student work groups so they can help those who struggle. She reasons that they will help the low performers, and theyll learn the material better themselves for having taught it to others. In preparation for a class discussion of how reptiles and amphibians regulate internal body temperature, the science
teacher asks a student known for his interest in auto mechanics to explain how most car engines regulate internal temperature. Other students are asked to explain how we regulate the temperature of our homes and buildings as well as our own bodies. G
Eleven students do not do the assignment from last night. Consequently, they are not prepared to move on with the class in todays task. There are only enough microscopes for every three students. One student in each group uses the microscope to bring items into focus, another draws what the group sees through the eyepiece, then all three students answer the comprehension
questions. Processing Activity: I used to think, but now I think
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