Developmental Psychology Part 1.B The Competent Newborn Reflexes

Developmental Psychology Part 1.B The Competent Newborn  Reflexes

Developmental Psychology Part 1.B The Competent Newborn Reflexes Habituation Temperament

Reflexes present at birth Rooting reflex- when touched on the cheek, a baby will turn toward the touch and try to eat Grasping reflex- baby will try to grasp any object placed in the their palm or foot pad Moro reflex- When startled a baby will fling its body outward and then retract them to become as small as possible Babinski reflex- Will spread their toes when

their foot is stroked How can we measure development in the Newborn Investigators study infants habituation to objects over some duration of time. New objects are paid more attention than habituated ones, showing learning.

Developing Brain The developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual for rational thought. Maturation and Motor Development

Infants begin to roll over first followed by sitting unsupported, crawling, and finally walking. Experience has little effect on this sequence. Profimedia.CZ s.r.o./ Alamy Phototake Inc./ Alamy Images Jim Craigmyle/ Corbis

Renee Altier for Worth Publishers Maturation The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, leading various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence standing before walking, babbling before talkingthis is

called maturation. Maturation sets the basic course of development, experience adjusts it . Maturation and Infant Memory Infantile amnesia - Earliest age of conscious memory is around 3 years (Bauer, 2002). A 5year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory

is different from 3-4 years. Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier Amy Pedersen Jean Piaget This guy is an all-star First studied intelligence testing in France. Later

developed a theory of cognitive development in children They love to put him on the exam! Basis of Cognitive

Development Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by errors we make. We learn from our

mistakes Schemas (schemat a) Concepts or mental frameworks that people use to organize and

interpret information A persons picture of the world Assimilation First, we interpreting a new experience within the context of existing schemas When you first meet somebody, you will assimilate them into a schema that you already have.

Example- all 4 legged animals are dogs! Accommodation As we interact with the world- we adjust or accommodate our schemas to add new information Adapting current schemas to incorporate new information The new experience is so novel the persons schema must be changed to accommodate it

Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Stages Sensorimotor Stage In sensorimotor stage babies take in the world through senses. Children younger than 6 months do not have object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.

Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 to about 6-7 years, children are in preoperational stage too young to perform mental operations. Beginning of language, limited in the ways they can think about relationships between objects. Unable to grasp conservation Ontario Science Center

Tests of Conservation Egocentrism Piaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from anothers point of view. Collective Monologues

Animism Artificialism VDgo0 Theory of Mind Preschoolers, although still egocentric, develop

the ability to understand others mental states when they begin forming a theory of mind. Problem on the right probe such ability in children. Concrete Operational Stage

In concrete operational stage, given concrete materials, 6 to 7-year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities. Think more logically and develop reversibility Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions. So if, 4 + 8 = 12 then transformation 12 4 = 8

is also readily doable. Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason, what Piaget called formal operational thinking. Some people do not reach this stage in all areas

of thought Gain ability for metacognition (thinking about thinking) *Ability to think about themselves, think about what others are thinking, think about what others are Piagets Stages of Cognitive

Developmen t An Alternative Viewpoint to Piaget: Lev Vygotsky . Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition (Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in

the process of "making meaning." Scaffolding Zone of proximal development Reflecting on Piagets Theory Piagets stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in

many cultures and societies. However, todays researchers believe: 1. Development is a continuous process. 2. Children express their mental abilities and operations at earlier ages. 3. Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.

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