THE INVASION OF THE CELTS AND THE ROMANS INTO BRITAIN CELTS (between 6th and 4th century BC) BRITAIN ROMANS (55 BC 410 AD / 4th century) LITERATURE CELTIC - a lively imagination - true poetic feeling - deep love of nature - those heathen were very human
ENGLISH LITERATURE Love till into death: TRISTAM AND ISOLDE Celtic origin: ARTHURIAN ROMANCES THE CELT AND THE ROMANS BRITON BRITAIN
ROMAN CIVILIZATION Agriculture Law Religion Language Physical development THE SETTLING OF THE ANGLOSAXONS In the 5th century Teutonic tribes (from Germany) settled Britain The Jutes The Anglo-Saxons In 599
Briton Engla-land * Language: low Germanic dialect England Anglo-Saxon Literature Poems Epics Riddles Heroic Sagas: - Nibelungen Lied
- Gundrum - Wieland - Beowulf no love lyrics: - The Battle of Maldon Prose - the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Bede (673 735): Ecclesiastical History of the English People - King Alfred: translated Old English verses into Latin translated Bedes works from Latin into English
Father of English Prose Poetry - Elegiac Poems: . The Ruined Burg . The Wifes Complaint . The Wanderer his . The Seafarer the when the spring returns
mourns the vanished glory of the ruined city, victim of Fate (Wyrd). a young wife mourns her separation a young man sighs for dead liege-lord nothing can destroy picture of those dark Northern sea; the misery is forgotten War Poems: - Battle of Maldon
against Danes in 991 Christian poems: - Genesis A - Genesis B - Exodus - Daniel - Christ and Satans fought the Other old English poems
- Andreas - Guthlac - The Dream of The Rood (the best poem) Old English Lyrics - Deors Complaint - The Husbands Messages Poems of Scholars: - Caedman Song of Creation in Song of Creation in Alliterative Verse - Cynewulf Song of Creation in The Ascention, Song of Creation in The Christ
The Outstanding Features of the Old English Poem : The Alliterative verse Parallelism A great number of flowery, composite terms The musical accompaniment of a stringed instrument Language Spoken by the Anglo-Saxons : 1. Low-Germany Old English / Oldest English
Differs from later English, is relatively full of inflectional system and practically a unilingual vocabulary. 2. Four main dialects : a. Kentish Kent and Surrey b. West Saxon Saxon ( South Territory of the Thames ) c. Mercian/Midland between the Thames & the
Humber ( Southern Angels ) d. Northumbrian between the Humber & Scotland Religion of the AngloSaxons : Polytheism 1. Chief gods : Thor Loki
Tiw Days of the week 2. The gods were subject to the decrees of the dread goddess Wyrd or Fate Anglo Saxon Characteristics : 1. Stern, barbarous life, subjected by nature to 2. 3.
4. 5. rude turmoil Mixtures of savagery, sentiment and nobility Religious feeling, its philosophy being instinct with fatalism Responsiveness to Nature, Particularly deep love of the sea inspired their poetry Common sense, power of indurance, and seriousness of thought characterize the Anglo-Saxons Anglo Saxon Ideals :
Love of glory is the ruling motive of every noble life Allegiance to lord or king is the social virtue most extolled Reference for womanhood higher than was usual even among more enlightened people Love of personal freedom, did not conflict with the fidelity, even unto death of thane to lord Open-handed hospitality of lord to thane Honoring of truth Repression of sentiment Mythological Basis of
Beowulf : 1. Beowulf is sun-god 2. Beowulf symbolizes mankind fighting 3. Beowulf is a culture hero 4. Epic is a possible amalgamation of the historical story Structure and Form Beowulf is called a Popular Epic: - Familiar traditions of people - Long, dignified narrative poem - Momentous actions of an heroic character
- Sustained majestic verse - Exalted or supernatural personage of the past, or characters of noble birth - If at rare intervals one of low ranks is introduced that persons name goes unmentioned 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
EXERCISES What is the relation of history and literature? According to the history, why did AngloSaxons come to England? How was woman regarded? Could you compare the Anglo-Saxon ideal woman with that of Paleolithic, Neolithic, or Roman people? Why poetry is more interesting than prose in the Old period? Tell the language development from the very old period to the Anglo-Saxon period. What was the effect of Christianity to the life of English people?
Give an account of Alfreds career in his works of literature.
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