The OvonicTM Cognitive Computer The conventional computer and

The OvonicTM Cognitive Computer The conventional computer and

The OvonicTM Cognitive Computer The conventional computer and semiconductor industries today face severe problems because they have become cyclical industries. The prospects for future growth and higher margins remain poor and the need for a fundamental breakthrough has never been greater. Conventional computers have the limitations shown in the chart. The Ovonic Cognitive Computer provides a basic new approach to computing which solves the problems of conventional computers and opens up an entirely new field beyond the binary paradigm of conventional computers. Conventional Ovonic Cognitive Computer Silicon Computers Each Element: Each Element: Computes based on single bit (binary) manipulation Manipulates data sequentially, bit by bit Both manipulates and stores information in a non-volatile fashion Hardware and software become one Low voltage and low current operation Performs arithmetic operations(+,-,x,/) on multi-bit numbers (0,1,2,3n) Performs modular arithmetic Executes multi-valued logic Stores the result in a non-volatile manner Simple, powerful encryption Acts as a neuro-synaptic cell; i.e. possesses intelligence capability

Scales down to angstrom scale dimensions; huge density Less than picosecond speed Capable of massive parallelism; also addressing different values The OvonicTM Cognitive Computer Arrays of computation and storage An array of Ovonic elements elements are combined in a Easily factors large numbers conventional computer which: Has attributes of quantum computers without their Requires separate storage and processor units or regions Has limited parallel processing capability Is limited to Von Neumann operations limitations Performs high level mathematical functions (e.g. vector and array processing) High 3-dimensional interconnectivity, huge density, giving rise to high speed, hyper-parallel processing (i.e. millions of interconnected processors) Has adaptive learning capability Interconnectivity is simply and inherently reconfigurable The Ovonic Devices are: Mass produced in exceptionally dense, all thin film, uniquely interconnected arrays Mass manufactured as a thin film, flexible device using proven technologies Ovonic transistor unique high speed low cost 3 terminal

device. Nanostructure capable of carrying large amounts of current In summary, the Ovonic Cognitive Computer can not only perform the binary functions inherent in conventional, silicon-based computers, but also functions as a non-binary processor capable of manipulating and storing data in high level arithmetic bases (e.g. decimal, hexadecimal, base 8 and many others). Higher level bases provide for operational capabilities according to a multi-valued logic. The Ovonic Cognitive Computer is the only computer that has adaptive learning and intelligence capability functions. TM complementary logic (20-12=8) 200 nsec Ovonic Neuronal Memory Increased unique functionality Used only for demonstration in our setup. When placed in a chip, can be much faster. R E S IS TA N C E TM

1 2 DIVISION of INTEGERS Increased unique functionality 3 SET # o f P U LSE S 16 D e v ic e C O U N TE R 5 R E M A IN D E R 1 TM 15 FACTORING Increased unique functionality 2

3 5 7 11 7R1 5R0 3R0 2R1 1R4 SE LE C T R = 0 15= 5*3 TM in p u t Neurosynaptic Cell Ovonic Single and Multiple Cells have the same properties as neurons and biological cells

in p u t in p u t in p u t in p u t in p u t N e r v e C e ll synapse in p u t N e r v e C e ll axon in p u t in p u t Output fires when the threshold is reached by summing the inputs in p u t N e r v e C e ll in p u t o u tp u t

TM NEW FUNDAMENTAL APPROACH TO COMPUTING THE FIRST NON VON NEUMANN COMPUTER WITH LEARNING ABILITY First Generation Ovonic Cognitive Computer: Devices are digital not binary A single device that can perform mathematical operations offering completely new levels of functionality Revolutionary ability to perform many unexpected functions in a single submicron device made by Ovonic production methods Much higher storage density Increased accuracy for large integers (e.g., present computers are up to 32,000, and this one increases to 1010) Faster computation because of the ability to operate with decimals instead of binary numbers Single thin-film device in the sub-micron range that incorporates memory, logic and computing, not only binary but higher base arithmetic Which results in the ability for massive parallelism TM THE FIRST NON VON NEUMANN COMPUTER WITH LEARNING ABILITY

(Contd) Devices are non-volatile and radiation hard Continues to compute after power disruption Excellent for space and military requirements Eliminates need for ultra-quality electricity Completely proprietary Devices are low voltage Drastically reduces power requirements and heat generation Thin-film, lightweight, low cost, manufacturable chips Multi-layer device demonstrated

3-D inter-connectivity Increases density of storage Dramatic reduction in size, cost and weight TM THE FIRST NON VON NEUMANN COMPUTER WITH LEARNING ABILITY (Contd) Cognitive abilities with similar levels of inter-connectivity as neurons, dendrites and synapsis I.d., neurosynaptic self-learning computer itself is a self-adapting neural net Proprietary thin-film technology includes new basic types of modulation and switching devices of exceptionally small sizes. It breaks the barriers of size holding back computers by the ability to go down to angstrom dimensions.

Can have both digital and analogue operations Has attributes of quantum computing, but: Is reliable in practice Has robust data retention Can replace conventional computer Has all conventional computing functions TM THE FIRST NON VON NEUMANN COMPUTER WITH LEARNING ABILITY (Contd) Plus additional features:

Hardware merges with software - data encryption (double security) 3-D computers Neurosynaptic processing has learning and intelligence capability TM OVONIC COGNITIVE COMPUTER CAPABILITY We are the originators of amorphous and disordered material devices: We invented the basic Ovonic chalcogenide devices over 40 years ago Ovonic optical phase change memory is in world-wide production and is experiencing increased sales We founded Ovonyx, a Joint Venture with Intel and Tyler Lowrey, former ViceChairman and Chief Technology Officer of Micron Technology, for memory applications We can demonstrate proof-of-concept devices for the new computer ECD has a world class, clean room laboratory build in 2001. One of the most advanced in the world. We have the fundamental patents And, we have a proven, experienced team in place The ability to build these new devices and integrate them into a paradigm changing computer which can be the basis of a new computer industry Original commercialization will take place with joint venture partners and funding

from government and other sources to build a new computer industry TM These Ovonic memory devices are only shown to illustrate the voltage and current range of the Ovonic Cognitive Computer. TM Resulting Programmed Resistance (Ohms) Programming Curves for Low Current Device 250 Current (A) 200 150 100 50 0 0 0 .2

0 .4 0 .6 Device Voltage (V) 0 .8 1 1 .2 Programming Current (A) These Ovonic memory devices are only shown to illustrate the voltage and current range of the Ovonic Cognitive Computer. TM These memory devices were cycled for more than 1013 cycles and then taken off the test without failure. TM Cycle Life > 1013 Write/Erase Cycles L o g D e v ic e R e s is ta n c e

6 5 4 P r o g r a m m in g P u ls e W id t h : 5 0 n s e c P r o g r a m m in g C u r r e n t: 1 a n d 1 .7 m A 3 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 L o g N u m b e r o f P r o g r a m m in g C y c le s These memory devices were cycled for more than 1013 cycles and then taken off the test without failure.

TM Multi-State Storage D E V IC E R E S IS T A N C E (o h m s ) 1E+6 1E+5 1E+4 2 .8 2 2 .7 3 2 .6 3 2 .5 4 2 .4 5 2 .3 5 2 .2 6 2 .1 6 2 .0 7

1 .9 8 1 .8 8 1 .7 9 1 .7 0 1 .6 0 00 88 76 64 52 40 28 16 04 92

80 68 56 32 20 44 1 .5 1 4. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.

3. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 1 .4 2 1E+3 P R O G R A M M IN G C U R R E N T (m A ) Multiple-bit storage in each memory cell (10 pulses per step, repeated ten times.) TM Near Ideal Memory Qualities

Non-volatile High endurance >1013 demonstrated Long data retention >10 years Static no refresh overhead penalty Random accessible read and write High switching speed Non-destructive read TM Near Ideal Memory Qualities (continued) Direct overwrite capability Low standby current (<1A) Large dynamic range for data (>40X) Actively driven digit-line during read Good array efficiency expected No memory SER RAD hard No charge loss failure mechanisms TM Highly Scalable Performance improves with scaling Only lithography limited Low voltage operation Multi-state demonstrated 3D multi-layer potential with thin films Small storage active medium

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