GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY 1. Development of embryology 2. Germ

GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY 1. Development of embryology 2. Germ cell and fertilization 3. Blastocyst and implantation 4. Formation of the germ layer 5. Differentiation of trilaminar germ and formation of embryo 6. Fetal membrane and placenta 7. Twins and multiple birth

Preembryonic period: 1st week to end of 2nd week fertilization to formation of bilaminar germ disc Embryonic period: 3rd week to end of 8th week formation of embryo Fetal period: 9th week to birth growth Perinatal stage: 26th week to 4 week after birth Animal

Plant Human Development of embryology Aristotle, B.C 384-322 Semen+menstration Harvey, 1651:

All life from oocyte Malpighi, 1675: A micro-chicken in an egg Leewenhoek, 1677 : A micro-human in a sperm Haeckel, 1868 Biogenetic law

Spemann, 1869-1941 Experimental embryology Wilmut,1997 Dolly Germ cell and fertilization Germ cell spermatozoon and ovum

1. Spermatozoon Capacitation In female reproductive tract, the sperms were enabled to bind to the zona pellucida receptors. removal of glycoproteins (decapacitation factor) which cover the sperms 2. Ovum secondary oocyte arrested at metaphase in the second meiotic division

Fertilization: The process in which the spermatozoon penetrates into the ovum to form fertilized ovum. In the ampulla of oviduct Process of fertilization Sperm bind to sperm receptor ZP-3 induce Acrosome reaction release of acrosomal enzyme Penetration and release of acrosomal nucleus acrosome enzyme

Cell membrane of ovum ovum fertilized ovum sperm Zona reaction: Cortical granulesperivitelline space

degrade ZP-3, alteration of zona pellucida barrier for sperm penetration The second meiotic division of the secondary oocyte is rapidly lifted and the second polar body is released, leaving a haploid female nucleus.

Contac of sperm and ovum Sperm penetrate into the ovum Formation of female and male pronucleus Fusion of pronuclei Process of fertilization

Fusion of the membrane of sperm and ovum The nucleus of sperm penetrate into ovum Formation of

pronuclei Alteration of ovum Fusion of pronuclei 24 h 2.Condition of fertilization

Normal ovum Normal sperm sufficient numbers Certain time 12-24h Free reproductive tract 3.Significance of fertilization A new life Diploid

inheritance and aberrance Sex determination Formation of blastocyst and implantation Cleavage and formation of blastocyst 1. Cleavage early division of fertilized egg 2. Blastomere daughter cells from cleavage 3. Morula 12 to 16- cell stage, enclosed in the zona pellucida,

like morus 4. Blastocyst about 100 blastmeres blastocoele inner cell mass and trophoblast polar trophoblast Phase of cleavage Fertilized egg

2-cell stage 18~36h 4-cell stage 36~48h 8-cell stage

48~60h Morula 12 to 16-cell stage The third day Appearance and inner structure of blastocyst

Appearance Inner structure Movement of fertilized egg in the oviduct Implantation (imbed) The process by which the blastocyst settles into endometrium. 6th day to 11th day

Fundus and body of uterus zona pellucida disappear at the 5th day 1.Trophoblast proliferate and differentiate into two layers Syncytiotrophoblast outer layer, fused each other, cell boundaries disappear Cytotrophoblast inner layer cell boundaries distinct, simple cuboidal cells Movement and implantation of fertilized egg

Implantation at 7th day Cytotrophoblast Inner cell mass Polar trophoblast Endometrium

2.Decidua endometrium implantation decidua decidual response Decidua basalis under the implantation site Decidua capsularis between the implantation site and the uterine lumen Decidua parietalis remaining endometrium Decidua

Formation of germ layer Bilaminar germ disc 1.Bilaminar germ disk Inner cell mass2 layers of cell in disc (7th day) Epiblast: columnar cells adjacent to trophoblast Hypoblast: cuboidal cells adjacent to blastocoele Epiblast

Columnar cells Hypoblast Cuboidal cells Bilaminar germ disc Epiblast

Hypoblast 2. Amnion 8th day epiblast amnioblast aminiotic membrane amniotic cavity amniotic fluid 3.Primary yolk sac 9th day hypoblast extraembyronic endoderm primary yolk sac Bilaminar germ disc at 9th day

Primary yolk sac Hypoblast Epiblast Amniotic cavity Syncytiotrophoblast Bilaminar germ disc Decidua

Syncytiotrophoblast Epiblast Hypoblast Primary yolk sac Cytotrophoblast Amniotic

cavity 4. Extraembryonic mesoderm: 10th-11th day 5. Extraembryonic cavity: 12th-13th day Extraembryonic mesoderm: visceral layer parietal layer 6. Secondary yolk sac: 13th day 7. Body stalk: 14th day

Embryo at 10th day Primary yolk sac Extraembryonic mesoderm Germ disc Amnion Bilaminar germ disc

Decidua Epiblast Hypoblast Amniotic cavity Primary yolk sac Cytotrophoblast

Extraembryonic mesoderm Syncytiotrophoblast Embryo at 13th day Extraembryonic cavity Primary yolk sac

Secondary yolk sac Body stalk Bilaminar germ disc Primary stem villus Extraembryonic mesoderm Visceral layer

Extraembryonic mesoderm Parietal layer Body stalk Secondary yolk sac Extraembryonic cavity

Formation of trilaminar germ Trilaminar germ disc primitive streak, primitive groove primitive node, primitive pit 3rd week 3rd week 1. Endoderm: primitive groove hypoblast endoderm

2. Mesoderm primitive groove between epiblast and hypoblat mesoderm 3. Ectoderm epiblast ectoderm Primitive streak Hypoblast Epiblast

Primitive streak Hypoblast Epiblast Significance of primitive streak Primitive

node Primitive pit Primitive groove Primitive streak Determine

the direction of the embryo notochord Formation of endoderm Epiblast Primitive

streak Endoderm Hypoblast Formation of mesoderm Epiblast Mesoderm Endoderm

Trilaminar germ disc Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm proliferation Epiblast

Head Primitive pit process Notochordal tube Neurenteric canal

Significance of notochord ? Notochord No mesoderm Buccopharyngeal membrane Cloacal membrane

Differentiation of trilaminar germ and formation of embryo Differentiation of trilaminar germ 1.Differentiation of ectoderm Neural tube blastema of CNS neural plate (18th-19th day) Neuro-epithelium (neural ectoderm): pseudostratified columnar neural groove , neural fold

neural tube (closed at 22nd day) Neural groove Paraxial mesoderm Intermediate mesoderm Neural groove Paraxial mesoderm

intermediate mesoderm Neural groove Neural crest Notocord 1 Differentiation of ectoderm

Anterior neuropore closed at 25th Neural fold Neural tube closed at 22nd day, from 4th somite Posterior neuropore closed at 27th

Unclosed Anterior neuropore Unclosed Posterior neuropore Neural crest blastema of PNS chromaffin cell, parafollicular cell some of bone, cartilage and muscle of head

Superficial ectoderm: after formation of neural tube epidermis 2.Differentiation of mesoderm Paraxial mesoderm somite 17th day at 20th day, from the head

Dermotome dermis, hypodermis Myotome skeletal muscle, Sclerotome axial skeleton. Intermediate mesoderm urinary and reproductive system Lateral mesoderm parietal mesoderm viseral mesoderm intraembryonic coelomic cavity

Somite Differentiation of lateral mesoderm Dermatome Sclerotome Parietal mesoderm Intraembryonic coelomic cavit Visceral mesoderm

Differentiation of lateral mesoderm Intraembryonic coelomic cavity Extraembryonic coelomic cavity 3. Differentiation of endoderm Epithelium of primitive gut epithelium of digestive tract, digestive gland, respiratory tract and lung

Primitive pharynx 5 pairs of pharyngeal pouch Formation of primitive gut A B Parietal mesoderm Intraembryonic coelomic cavity

Visceral mesoderm Formation of embryonic body week) 20-30th day (4-8th Disc folds

Column the number of somite increase face development, formation of branchial pouch breach of buccopharyngeal membrane 5th week: upper and lower limb buds 6th week: hand and foot plates 7th week: formation of face, disappear of somite 8th week: breach of cloacal membrane

At the end of 8th week a small human Fetal membrane and placenta Fetal membrane

Chorion Amnion Yolk sac Allantois Umbilical cord Amnion

Yolk sac Umbilical cord Placenta 1.Chorion Secondary stem villus +chorinic plate Primary stem villus 2nd week

Outer syncytiotrophoblast+ Inner cytotrophoblast Chorinic plate : extraembryonic mesoderm + trophoblast Secondary stem villus 3rd week Outer syncytiotrophoblast+ Intermedial extraembryonic mesoderm+ Inner cytotrophoblast

Tertiary stem villus end of 3rd week, Blood vessels Anchoring villus, Free villus cytotrophoblastic cell column cytotrophoblastic shell Primary stem villus at 2nd week cytotrophoblast Secondary stem villus at 3rd week extraembryonic mesoderm

Tertiary stem villus at the end of 3rd week blood vessels Stem villus

Free villus Anchoring villus Cytotrophoblastic column Cytotrophoblastic shell Evolvement of chorion Chorion laeve adjacent to decidua capsularis Chorion frondosum adjacent to decidua basalis

6th weeks Chorion laeve Chorion frondosum Abnormility of chorion Hydatidiform Picture

Chorion carcinoma Hydatidiform Hydatidiform Hydatidiform

Chorion carcinoma Chorion carcinoma Chorion carcinoma 2. Yolk sac 5th-6th week, atresia Abnormality: Meckels diverticulum Umbilical fistula

Primitive blood cells Primordial germ cells 3. Amnion amniotic membrane: 0.2-0.5mm amniotic epithelium + extraembryonic mesoderm amniotic fluid: 500-1000ml abnormality: 500 ml,

oligohydramnios 2000 ml, polyhydramnios protection 4. Allantois degeneration Abnormality: Urachal fistula

2 pairs of blood vessel 1 umbilical vein 1 pair of umbilical artery 5. Umbilical cord 50 cm (CT, umbilical vein umbilical artery, degenerated yolk sac and allantois) covered with amniotic membrane Abnormality: 80 cm,

35 cm connect fetus with placenta Fetal membrane Placenta 1.Placenta: Chorion frondosum + Decidua basalis disk: 15-20cm Sandwich: chorinic plate (fetus) villi

basal plate (mother) basal plate: decidua + cytotrophoblastic shell placental septa cotyledon (incomplete) Umbilical vein Umbilical artery Decidua bsalis

Placenta septa Uterus vein Spiral artery 2.Placental membrane Structure between the blood of mother and fetus Syncytiotrophoblast Cytotrophoblast and its basal lamina Connective tissue

Endothelium and its basal lamina protection Fetal membrane Syncytiotrophoblast Cytotrophoblast Blood of mother

Nutriment Metabolic product Basal lamina Connective tissue

Basal lamina Endothelium 3.Function Substance exchange O2, nutriment, CO2, waste

Hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin, HCG; Human placental lactogen, HPL; Human placental progesterone, HPP, Human placental estrogen, HPE Placenta Function Substance exchange

Capillary of fetus Blood of mother 2 Nutriment water salt others water salt others

2 Metabolic waste Placenta Placenta Function Barrier Capillary of fetus

Blood of mother s Most of microorganism No way Placenta barrier Placenta

Function Barrier Capillary of fetus Blood of mother Most of drugs Most of microorganism

Some of microorganism Placenta barrier Placenta Function Endocrine Hormone

HCG HCS HPE HPP Function Corpus luteum Pregnancy

Mammary gland Appearance 3rd week Fastigium 8th week

2nd month 8th month Corpus luteum 4th month 8th month

Corpus luteum 4th month 8th month Twins and multiple birth 1.Twins monozygotic twins

dizygotic twins 2.Multiple birth monozygotic multiple birth polyzygotic multiple birth mixed multiple birth

Dizygotic twins Blastocyst 2 Amnion 2 Chorion 2 Placenta Blastocyst 2 Amnion 2 Chorion

2 Placenta Monozygotic twins separation of blastomere, of ICM, Blastocyst 2 ICM 2 Amnion 2 Chorion

2 Placenta 2 Amnion 1 Chorion 1 Placenta of primitive streak 2 primitive streak 1 Amnion 1 Chorion

1 Placenta

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