GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY 1. Development of embryology 2. Germ
GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY 1. Development of embryology 2. Germ cell and fertilization 3. Blastocyst and implantation 4. Formation of the germ layer 5. Differentiation of trilaminar germ and formation of embryo 6. Fetal membrane and placenta 7. Twins and multiple birth
Preembryonic period: 1st week to end of 2nd week fertilization to formation of bilaminar germ disc Embryonic period: 3rd week to end of 8th week formation of embryo Fetal period: 9th week to birth growth Perinatal stage: 26th week to 4 week after birth Animal
Plant Human Development of embryology Aristotle, B.C 384-322 Semen+menstration Harvey, 1651:
All life from oocyte Malpighi, 1675: A micro-chicken in an egg Leewenhoek, 1677 : A micro-human in a sperm Haeckel, 1868 Biogenetic law
Spemann, 1869-1941 Experimental embryology Wilmut,1997 Dolly Germ cell and fertilization Germ cell spermatozoon and ovum
1. Spermatozoon Capacitation In female reproductive tract, the sperms were enabled to bind to the zona pellucida receptors. removal of glycoproteins (decapacitation factor) which cover the sperms 2. Ovum secondary oocyte arrested at metaphase in the second meiotic division
Fertilization: The process in which the spermatozoon penetrates into the ovum to form fertilized ovum. In the ampulla of oviduct Process of fertilization Sperm bind to sperm receptor ZP-3 induce Acrosome reaction release of acrosomal enzyme Penetration and release of acrosomal nucleus acrosome enzyme
Cell membrane of ovum ovum fertilized ovum sperm Zona reaction: Cortical granulesperivitelline space
degrade ZP-3, alteration of zona pellucida barrier for sperm penetration The second meiotic division of the secondary oocyte is rapidly lifted and the second polar body is released, leaving a haploid female nucleus.
Contac of sperm and ovum Sperm penetrate into the ovum Formation of female and male pronucleus Fusion of pronuclei Process of fertilization
Fusion of the membrane of sperm and ovum The nucleus of sperm penetrate into ovum Formation of
pronuclei Alteration of ovum Fusion of pronuclei 24 h 2.Condition of fertilization
Normal ovum Normal sperm sufficient numbers Certain time 12-24h Free reproductive tract 3.Significance of fertilization A new life Diploid
inheritance and aberrance Sex determination Formation of blastocyst and implantation Cleavage and formation of blastocyst 1. Cleavage early division of fertilized egg 2. Blastomere daughter cells from cleavage 3. Morula 12 to 16- cell stage, enclosed in the zona pellucida,
like morus 4. Blastocyst about 100 blastmeres blastocoele inner cell mass and trophoblast polar trophoblast Phase of cleavage Fertilized egg
48~60h Morula 12 to 16-cell stage The third day Appearance and inner structure of blastocyst
Appearance Inner structure Movement of fertilized egg in the oviduct Implantation (imbed) The process by which the blastocyst settles into endometrium. 6th day to 11th day
Fundus and body of uterus zona pellucida disappear at the 5th day 1.Trophoblast proliferate and differentiate into two layers Syncytiotrophoblast outer layer, fused each other, cell boundaries disappear Cytotrophoblast inner layer cell boundaries distinct, simple cuboidal cells Movement and implantation of fertilized egg
Implantation at 7th day Cytotrophoblast Inner cell mass Polar trophoblast Endometrium
2.Decidua endometrium implantation decidua decidual response Decidua basalis under the implantation site Decidua capsularis between the implantation site and the uterine lumen Decidua parietalis remaining endometrium Decidua
Formation of germ layer Bilaminar germ disc 1.Bilaminar germ disk Inner cell mass2 layers of cell in disc (7th day) Epiblast: columnar cells adjacent to trophoblast Hypoblast: cuboidal cells adjacent to blastocoele Epiblast
Differentiation of lateral mesoderm Intraembryonic coelomic cavity Extraembryonic coelomic cavity 3. Differentiation of endoderm Epithelium of primitive gut epithelium of digestive tract, digestive gland, respiratory tract and lung
Primitive pharynx 5 pairs of pharyngeal pouch Formation of primitive gut A B Parietal mesoderm Intraembryonic coelomic cavity
Visceral mesoderm Formation of embryonic body week) 20-30th day (4-8th Disc folds
Column the number of somite increase face development, formation of branchial pouch breach of buccopharyngeal membrane 5th week: upper and lower limb buds 6th week: hand and foot plates 7th week: formation of face, disappear of somite 8th week: breach of cloacal membrane
At the end of 8th week a small human Fetal membrane and placenta Fetal membrane
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