BAC-Pack Surgical Airway Management B A C-Pack Bougie
BAC-Pack Surgical Airway Management B A C-Pack Bougie Aided Cricothyroidotomy Pack REV C 120418 The following materials were developed for the purpose of BAC-Pack orientation and training. Warranty: The BAC-Pack (Bougie Aided Cricothyroidotomy-Pack) surgical airway system constitutes a medical device, the use of which requires specific education and training. North American Rescue, LLC. warrants the BAC-Pack as merchantable expressly for the indication
detailed. North American Rescue disclaims all other implied warranties relating to this product, to include use beyond this products identified purpose, and utilization by untrained personnel or legally unauthorized parties. Caution: Federal Law restricts the BAC-Pack to sale by, or on the order of, a licensed physician. 2 The following materials were developed for the purpose of BAC-Pack orientation and training. Key Term: cricothyroidotomy (also referred to as cricothyrotomy, crike, or cric) an incision made through the skin and cricothyroid membrane to
establish a patent airway Indication: inability to ventilate or intubate by non-surgical methods Contraindication: patient who can be ventilated by any means other than placement of a surgical airway Caution: surgical airway training, Bac-Pack familiarization, and the adherence to established protocol are required to use this product 3 Objectives At the conclusion of both didactic and hands-on training, the provider should be able to: 1. Identify key BAC-Pack components, and their function.
2. List the indications, contraindication, and expected therapeutic benefits of surgical airway management. 3. Define surgical airway challenges. 4. Discuss a simplified airway management algorithm in relation to the surgical airway. 5. Identify adult male and female gross anatomy and related landmarks for surgical airway placement. 6. List key steps to surgical airway placement. 7. Discuss potential findings of successful surgical airway placement. 8. List complications that warrant attention following surgical airway placement. 9. Discuss scientific evidence as it relates to surgical airway management. 4 Objective 1: components and function Tracheostomy Kit w/Bougie-introducer Chloraprep Swabstick
Tracheal Hook Tracheal Tube Holder 10cc Syringe 5 #10 Scalpel (Penblade) Objective 1: components and function BAC-Pack supplied in a vacuum sealed package Directions for Use
Bac-Pack 6 Objective 1: components and function Elastic band removed from pack Pack opened - revealing organized contents 7 Objective 1: components and function Bougie Aided Cricothyroidotomy assembly removed from elastic retainer 8
Objective 2: indications & contraindication Indications: all ventilation attempts are unsuccessful airway obstruction cannot be relieved maxillofacial trauma (or like presentation) prevents non-surgical approach loss of airway is imminent without secure ventilation option Contraindication: patient can be ventilated by any method other than a surgical airway 9 Objective 2: indications & contraindication BAC-Pack is intended for the placement of a surgical airway when all positioning, basic, and advanced ventilation attempts have failed
this situation can be summarized in four words: cant ventilate cant intubate from which only two options remain: a successful surgical airway or death 10 Objective 2: therapeutic benefits A surgical airway should improve one or more of the following: relief from upper airway obstruction (secondary to trauma or other causes)
secure airway (from loss, or aspiration of fluids and debris) ventilation control (from inability to ventilate, severe respiratory distress, or necessity) improvement in oxygen saturation (from inability to ventilate, or airway related circulatory compromise) 11 Objective 3: challenges - reality check Challenges (rarely discussed) You may be in an undesirable position or location The patient may be an acquaintance Anatomy may be distorted or at greater anatomical depth than anticipated (trauma, excessive adipose tissue, edema, mass or tumor, scaring) Patient may be attempting to breathe or swallow (structural movement during procedure)
Profuse bleeding may occur during procedure (deoxygenated darker blood, which will likely obscure field) Loss of visual references may occur during procedure (forcing conversion to tactile anatomy identification, placement, and confirmation) 12 Objective 4: simplified airway algorithm Consider ventilation options Cant ventilate cant intubate YES 13 anterior
structures may be difficult to palpate note depth of this specimens anatomical structures (24% BMI) epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue reflected sternocleidomastoids elevated hyoid muscle elevated Objective 5: gross anatomy - anterior neck dissection thyroid gland
cricoid cartilage (ring) trachea women The Adam's apple is an anterior anatomical structure that is often most prominent in adult males; whereas the cricoid cartilage (ring) is often the only relatively prominent anterior structure in females Objective 5: landmarks - anterior anatomic variations 16 Objective 5: landmarks anterior anatomic variations hyoid hyothyroid
ligament thyroid cartilage male female cricothyroid membrane cricoid cartilage (ring) trachea dotted line indicates section location
Adams Apple is often the most palpable structure on men anterior posterior Cricoid cartilage is often the only palpable structure on women 1 7 Objective 6: insertion steps QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE STEP 1. Prepare equipment 18
Objective 6: insertion steps cricothyroid membrane STEP 2. Stabilize and locate anatomy *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 19 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 3. Cleanse site *this series depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 20
Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 4. Vertically incise external tissues *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 21 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 5. Horizontally incise cricothyroid membrane *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 22 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 5a: Insert tracheal hook through cricothyroid membrane
gently lift thyroid cartilage STEP 5b: Insert finger through cricothyroid membrane stabilize structures *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 23 Objective 6: insertion steps associated with STEP 5b use of tracheal hook associated with STEP 5a STEP 6. Insert bougie through cricothyroid membrane *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE
24 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 6. Insert bougie with tactile confirmation *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 25 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 7. Advance tube & inflate cuff *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 26 Objective 6: insertion steps
Optional maneuver after advancing tube, immediately remove bougie, ventilate and inflate cuff 27 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 8. Remove bougie *this slide depicts a RIGHT-HANDED operator on patients RIGHT SIDE 28 Objective 6: insertion steps STEP 9. Secure tube and ventilate 29
Objective 7: successful surgical airway placement Confirmation and reconfirmation of correctly placed surgical airway may include, but should not be limited to: Tracheal clicking or tactile feedback from inserted bougie Chest rise and fall with ventilation Presence of bilateral breath sounds with auscultation Absence of epigastric sounds with auscultation Negative finding with esophageal (false passage) detection device Evidence of sustained ETCO with ventilation Improving oxygen saturation 30 Objective 8: complications Complications of surgical airway include: hypoxemia false passage
aspiration bleeding damage to associated tissues subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema perforation of posterior trachea cardiac arrest infection 31 Objective 9: scientific evidence The BAC-Pack (Bougie Aided Cricothyroidotomy-Pack) and this presentation were developed utilizing the latest published evidence, independent research, and support of dedicated Military and Civilian medical professionals in Emergency Medicine, Trauma Surgery, Pulmonology, and Pathology. Clinical providers, regardless of their position, must dedicate themselves to the unrelenting reality that critical care is an evolution on behalf of those in need. Scientific Highlights
300 years of related airway discussion: 1667 Hooke 200 years of cricothyroidotomy debate with procedural updates and refinement 20th Century: Jackson et al - developed four basic principles reducing procedural complications 1976: Brantigan et al - 655 cases of cricothyroidotomy demonstrating 6% complication rate Numerous studies discuss efficacy and relative safety of surgical airway procedure Current evidence (Mabry et al) illuminates increase in
complications as training, equipment, and conditions become less than optimal 32 Objective 9: scientific evidence - references
Jackson, C . Tracheotomy. Laryngoscope 1909; 18:285. Jackson, C. High tracheotomy and other errors the chief cause of chronic laryngeal stenosis. Surg Gyneco Obstet 1921; 32:392. Brantigan CO, Grow JB Sr. Cricothyroidotomy: elective use in respiratory problems requiring tracheotomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1976; 71:72. Bair AE, Panacek EA, Wisner DH, et al. Cricothyrotomy: a 5-year experience at one institution. J Emerg Med 2003; 24:151.
Erlandson MJ, Clinton JE, Ruiz E, Cohen J. Cricothyrotomy in the emergency department revisited. J Emerg Med 1989; 7:115. Fortune JB, Judkins DG, Scanzaroli D, et al. Efficacy of prehospital surgical cricothyrotomy in trauma patients. J Trauma 1997; 42:832. Chang RS, Hamilton RJ, Carter WA. Declining rate of cricothyrotomy in trauma patients with an emergency medicine residency: implications for skills training. Acad Emerg Med 1998; 5:247. Scrase I, Woollard M. Needle vs surgical cricothyroidotomy: a short cut to effective ventilation. Anaesthesia 2006; 61:962. Schroeder AA. Cricothyroidotomy: when, why, and why not? Am J Otolaryngol 2000; 21:195. Bramwell KJ, Davis DP, Cardall TV, et al. Use of the Trousseau dilator in cricothyrotomy. J Emerg Med 1999; 17:433. Strange, GR, Niederman, LG. Surgical Cricothyrotomy. In: Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Procedures, Henretic, FM, King, C (Eds), Williams and Wilkens, Baltimore 1997. p.351. Salvino CK, Dries D, Gamelli R, et al. Emergency cricothyroidotomy in trauma victims. J Trauma 1993; 34:503. Aslani A, Ng SC, Hurley M, et al. Accuracy of identification of the cricothyroid membrane in female subjects using palpation: an observational study. Anesth Analg 2012; 114:987. Elliott DS, Baker PA, Scott MR, et al. Accuracy of surface landmark identification for cannula cricothyroidotomy. Anaesthesia 2010; 65:889. You-Ten KE, Desai D, Postonogova T, Siddiqui N. Accuracy of conventional digital palpation and ultrasound of the cricothyroid membrane in obese women in labour. Anaesthesia 2015; 70:1230.
Hiller KN, Karni RJ, Cai C, et al. Comparing success rates of anesthesia providers versus trauma surgeons in their use of palpation to identify the cricothyroid membrane in female subjects: a prospective observational study. Can J Anaesth 2016; 63:807. Bair AE, Chima R. The inaccuracy of using landmark techniques for cricothyroid membrane identification: a comparison of three techniques. Acad Emerg Med 2015; 22:908. Nicholls SE, Sweeney TW, Ferre RM, Strout TD. Bedside sonography by emergency physicians for the rapid identification of landmarks relevant to cricothyrotomy. Am J Emerg Med 2008; 26:852. Curtis K, Ahern M, Dawson M, Mallin M. Ultrasound-guided, Bougie-assisted cricothyroidotomy: a description of a novel technique in cadaveric models. Acad Emerg Med 2012; 19:876. Siddiqui N, Arzola C, Friedman Z, et al. Ultrasound Improves Cricothyrotomy Success in Cadavers with Poorly Defined Neck Anatomy: A Randomized Control Trial. Anesthesiology 2015; 123:1033. Kristensen MS, Teoh WH, Rudolph SS, et al. A randomised cross-over comparison of the transverse and longitudinal techniques for ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane in morbidly obese subjects. Anaesthesia 2016; 71:675. Kristensen MS, Teoh WH, Rudolph SS. Ultrasonographic identification of the cricothyroid membrane: best evidence, techniques, and clinical impact. Br J Anaesth 2016; 117 Suppl 1:i39. Hill C, Reardon R, Joing S, et al. Cricothyrotomy technique using gum elastic bougie is faster than standard technique: a study of emergency medicine residents and medical students in an animal lab. Acad Emerg Med 2010; 17:666.
Schaumann N, Lorenz V, Schellongowski P, et al. Evaluation of Seldinger technique emergency cricothyroidotomy versus standard surgical cricothyroidotomy in 200 cadavers. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:7. Mutzbauer TS, Munz R, Helm M, et al. [Emergency cricothyrotomy--puncture or anatomical preparation? Peculiarities of two methods for emergency airway access demonstrated in a cadaver model]. Anaesthesist 2003; 52:304. Brofeldt BT, Panacek EA, Richards JR. An easy cricothyrotomy approach: the rapid four-step technique. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3:1060. Holmes JF, Panacek EA, Sakles JC, Brofeldt BT. Comparison of 2 cricothyrotomy techniques: standard method versus rapid 4-step technique. Ann Emerg Med 1998; 32:442. Benkhadra M, Lenfant F, Nemetz W, et al. A comparison of two emergency cricothyroidotomy kits in human cadavers. Anesth Analg 2008; 106:182. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Bramwell KJ, et al. Comparison of wire-guided cricothyrotomy versus standard surgical cricothyrotomy technique. J Emerg Med 1999; 17:957. Schober P, Hegemann MC, Schwarte LA, et al. Emergency cricothyrotomy-a comparative study of different techniques in human cadavers. Resuscitation 2009; 80:204. Kanji H, Thirsk W, Dong S, et al. Emergency cricothyroidotomy: a randomized crossover trial comparing percutaneous techniques: classic needle first versus "incision first". Acad Emerg Med 2012; 19:E1061.
McGill J, Clinton JE, Ruiz E. Cricothyrotomy in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1982; 11:361. Johnson DR, Dunlap A, McFeeley P, et al. Cricothyrotomy performed by prehospital personnel: a comparison of two techniques in a human cadaver model. Am J Emerg Med 1993; 11:207. Gillespie MB, Eisele DW. Outcomes of emergency surgical airway procedures in a hospital-wide setting. Laryngoscope 1999; 109:1766. Mace, SE, Hedges, JR. Cricothyrotomy and Translaryngeal Jet Ventilation. In: Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine, 4th ed, Roberts, JR, Hedges, JR, Chanmugam, AS, et al (Eds), Saunders, Philadelphia 2004. p.115. Eisenburger P, Laczika K, List M, et al. Comparison of conventional surgical versus Seldinger technique emergency cricothyrotomy performed by inexperienced clinicians. Anesthesiology 2000; 92:687. Bair AE, Laurin EG, Karchin A, et al. Cricoid ring integrity: implications for cricothyrotomy. Ann Emerg Med 2003; 41:331. Davis DP, Bramwell KJ, Vilke GM, et al. Cricothyrotomy technique: standard versus the Rapid Four-Step Technique. J Emerg Med 1999; 17:17. Spaite DW, Joseph M. Prehospital cricothyrotomy: an investigation of indications, technique, complications, and patient outcome. Ann Emerg Med 1990; 19:279. Gerling MC, Davis DP, Hamilton RS, et al. Effect of surgical cricothyrotomy on the unstable cervical spine in a cadaver model of intubation. J Emerg Med 2001; 20:1.
Notable: Eastridge, B.J., Mabry, R.L., Seguin, P. et al, Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): implications for the future of combat casualty care. J Trauma. 2012;73:S431S437. Mabry, R.L., Edens, J.W., Pearse, L. et al, Fatal airway injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2010;14:272277. Mabry, R., Frankfurt, A., Kharod, C. et al, Emergency cricothyroidotomy in Tactical Combat Casualty Care. J Spec Oper Med. 2015;15:1119 Mabry, R., Nichols, M., Shiner, D. et al, A comparison of two open surgical cricothyroidotomy techniques by military medics using a cadaver model. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;63:15. EBG B, Ervin AT, Mabry RL, Bebarta VS. Prehospital and en route cricothyrotomy performed in the combat setting: a prospective, multicenter, observational study. J Spec Oper med. 2014;14(4):359. Mabry RL. An analysis of battlefield cricothyrotomy in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Spec Oper med. 2012;12(1):1723.
33 For additional information about the BAC-Pack email: [email protected] Tel: 864.675.9800 Mail: 35 Tedwall Court Greer, SC 29650-4791 Fax: 864.675.9880 BAC-Pack Bougie Aided Cricothyroidotomy-Pack REV C 120418
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