Chapter 0 Introduction Chapter 0: Introduction 0.1 The

Chapter 0 Introduction Chapter 0: Introduction  0.1 The

Chapter 0 Introduction Chapter 0: Introduction

0.1 The Role of Algorithms 0.2 The Origins of Computing Machines 0.3 The Science of Algorithms 0.4 Abstraction 0.5 An Outline of Our Study 0.6 Social Repercussions 0-2 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Algorithms: Definitions

Algorithm = a set of steps that defines how a task is performed. Program = a representation of an algorithm. Programming = the process of developing a program. Software = programs + algorithms. Hardware = machinery: whatever isnt software. 0-3 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Figure 0.1 An algorithm for a magic trick 0-4 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 0.1 An algorithm for a magic trick (contd) 0-5 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

History of Algorithms The study of algorithms was originally a subject in mathematics. Algorithms were studied before computers existed. Early examples of algorithms Long division algorithm Euclidean Algorithm Gdel's Incompleteness Theorem: some

problems cannot be solved by algorithms 0-6 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 0.2 The Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two positive integers 0-7 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

Origins of Computing Machines Early computing devices Abacus: positions of beads represent numbers Gear-based machines (1600s-1800s) Positions of gears represent numbers Blaise Pascal, Wilhelm Leibniz, Charles Babbage 0-8 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 0.3 An Abacus

0-9 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Origins of Computing Machines Early data storage: punched cards First used in Jacquard Loom (1801) to store patterns for weaving cloth Stored programs in Babbages Analytical Engine Popular through the 1970s

0-10 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Early computers Based on mechanical relays 1940: Stibitz at Bell Laboratories 1944: Mark I: Howard Aiken and IBM at Harvard Based on vacuum tubes 1937-1941: Atanasoff-Berry at Iowa State 1940s: Colossus: secret German code-breaker

1940s: ENIAC: Mauchly & Eckert at U. of Penn. 0-11 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 0.4 The Mark I computer 0-12 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Personal computers First used by hobbyists

1981: IBM introduces the PC Accepted by business Became the standard hardware design for most desktop computers Most PCs use software from Microsoft 0-13 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Computer Science The science of algorithms

Draws from other subjects, including Mathematics Engineering Psychology Business Administration

Psychology 0-14 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Central Questions of Computer Science Which problems can be solved by algorithmic processes? How can discovery of algorithms be made easier? How can techniques of representing and

communicating algorithms be improved? How can our knowledge of algorithms and technology be applied to provide better machines? How can characteristics of different algorithms be analyzed and compared? 0-15 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 0.5 The central role of algorithms in computer science

0-16 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Abstraction: Definitions Abstraction = the distinction between the external properties of an entity and the details of the entitys internal composition. Abstract tool = a component of a larger system whose internal composition we ignore. 0-17

2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Uses of abstraction Abstraction allows us to use things we dont fully understand. We all can use electrical devices, food, etc. that we either do not understand or cannot produce. Computer scientists can use algorithms implemented by others without understanding their details. 0-18

2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Outline of our study Design and construction of computing machines Chapter 1: Data storage Chapter 2: Data manipulation Chapter 3: Operating systems Chapter 4: Networks and the internet Chapter 5: Algorithms

0-19 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Outline of our study (continued) Chapter 6: Programming languages Chapter 7: Software engineering Data organization Chapter 8: Data abstractions Chapter 9: Database systems Chapter 10: Artificial intelligence

Chapter 11: Theory of computation 0-20 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Social Repercussions Computers enable new activities, raising new questions: Law: software producers rights and liabilities Ethics: what newly enabled activities are immoral? Government: which newly enabled activities should be regulated?

Society: how do computers affect our lives? This book should prepare the reader to participate intelligently in debates of these issues. 0-21 2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved

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