Building Construction I Introduction Building Construction I Sofia
Building Construction I Introduction Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 1 1 Environment surroundings which can be natural or manmade or a combination of these Natural Environment Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 2
2 Built Environment created by man with or without the aid of the natural environment Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 3 3 Built Environment Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 4
4 Physical considerations of built environment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Natural contours of land Natural vegetation and trees Size of land and/or proposed building Shape of land and/or proposed building Approach and access roads and foot paths Building regulations Services available Natural waterways, lakes and ponds
Restrictions such as rights of way, tree preservation and ancient buildings 10.Climatic conditions created by surrounding properties, land or activities 11.Proposed future developments Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 5 5 Natural environment its effect on the building Shape determined by existing trees Split level construction to form economic shape
Plateau or high ground solution giving dry site conditions on sloping sites Building Construction I Stepped elevation or similar treatment to blend with the natural environment Sofia Sebastian 6 6 The Structure Basic Types Building Construction I
Sofia Sebastian 7 7 The Structure Basic Types Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 8 8 The Structure Basic Types Strut is a structural member which is mainly subjected to compressional forces
Building Construction I Vertical strut usually called a column stanchion or pier Sofia Sebastian 9 9 The Structure Basic Types Tie is a structural member which is subjected mainly to tensional forces Loads are transmitted around arches to the basements Building Construction I
Sofia Sebastian 10 10 The Structure Basic Forms SOLID CONSTRUCTION Structurally limited Confined usually to buildings of low height and short spans FRAMED OR SKELETAL CONSTRUCTION Building Construction I PANEL OR BOX CONSTRUCTION Structure consists of a series of interconnected plates forming structural Sofia
Sebastian walls and floors 11 11 The Structure Basic Forms FOLDED PLATE CONSTRUCTION Flat slab folded so that roof will behave as a beam spanning along fold Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 12 12 Shell roofs these are formed by
a structural curved skin covering a given plan shape and area The Structure Basic Forms Shell roofs Translational dome formed by a curved line moving over another curved line Barrel vault cut cylinder giving a single curvature shell Dome or rotational shell double curvature shell formed by rotating a plain curved shape about a vertical axis Pendentive dome Hemispherical rotational dome supported on pendentives Building Construction I
Sofia Sebastian 13 13 CONOID SHELLS Double curvature shells The Structure Basic Forms HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID Double curvature saddle shaped shell Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian
14 14 The Structure Basic Forms SPACE DECK a series of interconnected inverted pyramids Building Construction I SPACE FRAME a series of interconnect ed grids Sofia Sebastian
15 15 The Structure Basic Forms TENSION MEMBRANE STRUCTURE Net of cables forming tension membrane Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian 16 16 PARTS OF A BUILDING
Ground floor Sill Window Jamb ( vertical wall on both sides of doorway or window opening) Lintel Corbel Ceiling Upper floor String course with throating Frieze (stone cornice below cornice) Cornice Blocking course Terrace Parapet DPC under coping Coping Building Construction I Sofia Sebastian
Anatomy of the larynx. The larynx is made of: Hyoid bone : U shaped, near C3 level. 9 cartilages: 3 paired and 3 single cartilages. Ligaments and membranes that connects the cartilage to give it stability
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