Changing Road Safety Behaviour: Insights from Health Psychology

Changing Road Safety Behaviour: Insights from Health Psychology

Changing Road Safety Behaviour: Insights from Health Psychology Paul Norman Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, UK [email protected] Key Points / Overview of Talk Understanding behaviour Changing behaviour Use of theory Behaviour change techniques Conclusion - what to change and how ?

COM-B Model (Michie et al., 2011) Physical Capability Psychological Physical Opportunity Social Reflective Motivation Automatic Behaviour COM-B Model (Michie et al., 2011)

Physical Capability Psychological Physical Opportunity Social Reflective Motivation Automatic Behaviour COM-B Model Behavioural Diagnosis What are the key barriers to the adoption of road safety behaviours?

Are they related to issues re: Capability, Opportunity, Motivation? What are the implications for interventions? Should intervention target drivers, pedestrians, car manufacturers, policy makers? Should the intervention involve education, training, instruction, design features, road infrastructure, legislation, enforcement? Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) Behavioural Beliefs Attitude

Normative Beliefs Subjective Norm Control Beliefs Perceived Behavioural Control Intention

Behaviour TPB Meta-Analysis (McEachan et al., 2011) Behavioural Beliefs .43 Normative Beliefs .53

Control Beliefs .41 Attitude Subjective Norm Perceived Behavioural Control

.57 .40 .54 R2 = .44 R2 = .19 .43 Intention Behaviour .31

TPB and Speeding (Elliott et al., 2003) Keep within speed limit while driving in built-up areas Attitude Subjective Norm Perceived Behavioural Control .51

.59 .79 RR2 = .48 RR2 = .32 .67 Intention Behaviour .64 N = 598 UK driving licence holders, baseline and 1-month follow-up

Changing TPB Cognitions Sheeran et al. (2015) Intervention effects (d+) on __________________________________________ TPB Intention Behaviour __________________________________________ Attitude 0.46 0.50 0.37 Norms 0.54 0.40 0.20

Perceived Control 0.60 0.50 0.46 __________________________________________ Developing a TPB intervention Ajzen (1988) outlines two stages: 1. Elicit modal salient behavioural, normative and control beliefs 2. Assess which beliefs are associated with intention/behaviour Eliciting Beliefs (Elliott et al., 2005) Semi-structured interviews with 16 drivers Behavioural Beliefs e.g., What do you believe are the advantages/ disadvantages of keeping within the speed limit while driving in built-up

areas? Normative Beliefs e.g., Which individuals or groups of people would approve/disapprove of you keeping within the speed limit while driving in built-up areas? Control Beliefs e.g., What factors or circumstances would make you more/less likely to keep within the speed limit while driving in built-up areas? Behavioural Beliefs Keeping within the speed limit while driving in built-up areas would put pedestrians at less risk reduce the chances of an accident use less fuel make it easier to detect hazards

make driving more relaxing/less stressful make it difficult to keep up with traffic Assessing Beliefs (Elliott et al., 2005) ____________________________________________________ Behavioural Beliefs ATT INT ____________________________________________________ put pedestrians at less risk .28 .20 reduce the chances of an accident .42 .29 use less fuel .23 .17

make it easier to detect hazards .45 .45 make driving more relaxing/less stressful .36 .37 make it difficult to keep up with traffic -.22 -.31 ___________________________________________________ All ps < .001 Assessing Beliefs (Elliott et al., 2005) ____________________________________________________ Normative Beliefs SN INT ____________________________________________________ spouse/partner .59 .40

parents/children .16 .37 friends .41 .48 ___________________________________________________ All ps < .001 Assessing Beliefs (Elliott et al., 2005) ____________________________________________________ Control Beliefs PBC INT ____________________________________________________ late/in a rush -.39 -.37

other motorists exceeding the speed limit -.36 -.34 speed limit not clearly signed -.46 -.49 long straight roads -.52 -.49 ___________________________________________________ All ps < .001 TPB Intervention (Elliott & Armitage, 2009) Behavioural Beliefs: Keeping to 30 mph speed limits will not make it difficult to keep up with the traffic. Many drivers think that if they keep to the speed limit they will have difficulty keeping up with the traffic. However, this is a perception rather than a reality for the most part. Consider what driving in a 30 mph area is typically like. Even on

larger 30 mph roads, there are roundabouts, traffic lights, pedestrian crossings, and other things that make it necessary for traffic to slow down or stop. If a vehicle in front starts to pull away from you, you will often find that by maintaining a speed of 30 mph you will catch up with that vehicle further up the road, because they have had to stop or slow down. They will have saved no significant amount of time and they will have gained little or no advantage. TPB Intervention (Elliott & Armitage, 2009) Normative Beliefs: Do the people important to you really want you or themselves to be involved in an accident? Many drivers say that a reason why they sometimes drive faster than the speed limit is because they think other people would want them to do so. Drivers may think that people important to them, or people whose views they respect, would

approve of them driving faster than the speed limit. However, is this really the case? It is a fact that increases in driving speed will increase the risk of a road traffic accident. It is also a fact that increases ii driving speed will increase the severity of an accident, were it to occur Ask yourself: Do the people who are important to me really want me, or themselves, to be involved in a road accident? Do my friends really want this to happen? Does my girl/boyfriend, or my wife/husband want this to happen? Do my parents or my children want this to happen? TPB Intervention (Elliott & Armitage, 2009) Control Beliefs: Is other traffic exceeding the speed limit? You may feel that it is difficult to keep to 30 mph speed limits when other traffic around you is exceeding the speed limit. However, you will find it easier to keep

to 30 mph speed limits if you simply ignore how fast others are driving and concentrate on your own driving.. Design Control Condition TPB Q TPB Q Behaviour TPB Q Experimental

Condition Time 1 (N = 292) TPB Q & TPB Booklet Time 2 month 1 Results

Results & Discussion Beliefs: Only 1 out of 13 comparisons significant Little evidence for proposed mechanisms of action - Low levels of engagement? - Weak messages? - Ceiling effects? - Behaviour change techniques (other than persuasion)? Low levels of engagement/Weak messages? TPB and Cycle Helmets (Quine et al., 2001) Behavioural Beliefs: Wearing a cycle helmet while cycling to and from school would

(i) make me take care, (ii) protect my head in an accident Normative Beliefs: (i) My parents, (ii) Most other cyclists at school, think that I should wear a cycle helmet while cycling to and from school Control Beliefs: Even if I wanted to, I might not be able to wear a cycle helmet while cycling to and from school because (i) doing up and adjusting the straps is too much effort, (ii) there is nowhere to keep it during lessons Behavioural Beliefs: Normative

Beliefs: Control Beliefs: Design Control Condition TPB Q TPB Q TPB Q

Behaviour Experimental Condition Time 1 (N = 97) Time 2 Time 3 months 5

Changes in Beliefs: Group x Time Effects ________________________________________ Time 2 Time 3 _________ _________ Con Exp Con Exp p ________________________________________ BB1

5.1 10.9 4.9 8.5 ** BB2 11.2 11.6 10.4 12.9 NB1 18.2 29.2 17.0 24.9 *** NB2 8.9 14.7 8.6 12.0 *

CB1 3.9 4.6 4.3 4.8 CB2 3.6 3.9 3.5 3.9 Intention 2.4 3.5 2.9 3.8 * ________________________________________

Cycle Helmet Use at Time 3 Hemet Use (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Con Exp

Ceiling effects/Strong intentions? Intention-Behaviour Gap (Sheeran, 2002) Act Do Not Act Intend 53% 47% nten Abstainer

Do Not Intend 7% 93% Non Abstainer Implementation Intentions Gollwitzer (1993) Goal Intentions I intend to drive within the speed limit Implementation Intentions IF I feel the need to keep up with traffic THEN I will concentrate more on my speedometer Gollwitzer & Sheeran (2006) meta-analysis d = 0.65

Elliott & Armitage (2006) Many drivers exceed the speed limit, even though they may not intend to. If you form a specific plan of exactly when, where, and how you will keep to the speed limit, you are more likely to actually do it. We would like you to try to keep within the speed limit when you are driving in 30-mph areas over the next month. Please decide now when you will start to keep to the speed limit while driving in 30-mph areas, and where and how you will do it. Please use the spaces below to write down in as much detail as possible when, where, and how you will try to keep to the speed limit. To ensure you have made a link in your mind between the situations you have described and the act of keeping within the 30-mph speed limit, imagine yourself in those situations and tell yourself If I find myself in this situation, I will [insert how plan] to ensure that I do not drive faster than the speed limit.

Driving within speed limits at one month 6 5 d = 0.42, p < .01 d = 0.00, n.s. 4 Control Imp Int 3 2 1

0 Time 1 Time 2 Volitional Help Sheet (Brewster et al., 2015) Speeding at one-month follow-up 5 4 3

2 1 0 d = 0.39 p < .01 Control VHS Behaviour change techniques other than persuasion and the provision of information?

Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) BCT Taxonomy (v1) (Michie et al., 2013) BCT Taxonomy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Goals and planning - goal setting Feedback and monitoring - self-monitoring Social support

- practical social support Shaping knowledge - behavioural instruction Natural consequences - information about consequences Comparison of behaviour - demonstration of the behaviour Associations - prompts/cues Repetition and substitution - behavioural practice Comparison of outcomes - pros and cons Reward and threat - material incentive Regulation - pharmacological support

Antecedents - restructuring the physical environment Identity - identification as self as role model Scheduled consequences - remove reward Self-belief - focus on past success Covert learning - imaginary reward Conclusions / Key Points The importance of a behavioural diagnosis to identify the key determinants of the target behaviour - Capability, Opportunity, Motivation?

How to target these determinants in an intervention? - Level of intervention, mode of delivery, recipients? - Which behaviour change techniques? Links between understanding and changing behaviour - Theory-based intervention development Changing Road Safety Behaviour: Insights from Health Psychology Paul Norman Department of Psychology University of Sheffield, UK [email protected]

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