# 1. Forces & Motion Review (material so far) 1. Forces & Motion Review (material so far) 2. Gravity Mrs. Deeley 7th Grade Science 1 Click on speaker IMPORTANT: On each slide, click on the

speaker at the top right of the slide to hear your lecture notes. Be sure your sound is turned up. 1. Motion is a change in position over time. Review 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. Motion is described in relation to a reference point. Speed is the rate of motion. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist having its motion changed. Mass of an object influences it motion. Forces acting on an object can be balanced or unbalanced. Many forces may be acting on an object. Examples of forces include gravity, magnets, friction, and contact.

2 3 Source: Gravity Movie Isaac Newton Source: CK12 4

Gravity is a Universal Force Newtons law of gravity is called the law of universal gravitation. Universal gravitation means that the force that causes an apple to fall from a tree to the ground is the same force that causes the moon to keep moving around Earth. Universal gravitation also means that while Earth exerts a pull on you, you exert a pull on Earth. In fact, there is gravity between you and every mass around youyour desk, your book, your pen. Even tiny molecules of gas are attracted to one another by the force of

gravity. 5 Gravity Gravity is the force that objects exert on each other because of their masses. Mass: a measure of how much matter an object is made of. Matter: Anything that has mass and volume. Matter is typically a solid, liquid, or a gas. When you drop any object (for example, a pencil), it falls to

the ground. As the object falls, it moves faster and faster. The downward pull of an object is due to gravity. 6 Gravity, Mass, and Distance Mass The more mass two objects have, the greater the force of gravity the masses exert on each other. If one of the masses is doubled, the force of gravity between the objects is doubled.

Greater mass results in greater force. Distance As distance between objects increases, the force of gravity decreases. If the distance is doubled, the force of gravity is one-fourth as strong as before. Greater distance results in smaller force. 7 8 Question

Which has more gravitational attraction, a pair of students standing one meter apart or the same students standing three meters apart? Explain your answer. Sentence starter: When the students are standing _______________ meters apart, there is more gravitational attraction because ____________________ ____________________________________________________________. **Be sure and include these terms in your answer: mass, distance, force, gravity 9

Gravity on Earth The force of gravity acts on all objects; however, the effects on the objects can be different depending on their mass. Objects with more mass: gravity exerts more force on it. The greater the mass of an object, the more inertia so the greater force does not produce a larger acceleration. Recall: inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. Objects with different masses fall with the same acceleration.

The acceleration due to Earths gravity is called g and is equal to 9.8 m/s 2 (meters per second squared) at Earths surface. 10 Summary Newtons law of universal gravitation states that the force of gravity affects everything with mass in the universe. Newtons law also states that the strength of gravity between any two objects depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them.

11 References 1. McDougal Littell Science 2. CK12 Flexbooks 3. Gravity Movie 12