CIS101A CompTia 1001 Week 1 Chapters 1 3 Material Computer Systems comprise of three main categories: Hardware, Software, and Firmware ______________________________________________________ Hardware is the physical components that compose a computer system. Hardware components would include: Computer Systems 1. Keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer 2. Connectors and cables
3. Hard disk drives 4. Circuit boards (motherboards) Software is data that is stored electronically, either on a storage device or chip. Software would include: 5. Operating Systems (OS) 6. Program Applications 7. Hardware drivers (program that tells the Operating System (OS) how to use the hardware)
Firmware is a special type of software that is embedded in the read-only memory (ROM) of a hardware component. Example would be BIOS or UEFI Hardware is broken into five categories: Hardware Categorizati on 1. Input: movement of data from the user to the system [keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone] 2. Processing: Flow of data through a series of procedures as defined by a set of instructions [CPU / RAM]
3. Storage devices: Devices that contain nonvolatile memory for saving or maintaining data [Hard Drives, Solid State Drives, Optical drives] 4. Output: Process of the system presenting, displaying or otherwise giving data [Video, Printing, Speakers] 5. Network and Communications: Practice of connecting two or more systems in order to transfer data [Copper Wire, Routers] Influence of componentization and standardization ____________________________________
Modular Design Componentization: PC is a combination of several constituent parts which each part is considered a field replaceable unit (FRU); which means it is easily replaceable or upgradeable when needed Standardization: Allows components from different manufacturers to be interchangeable. If a component meets specific standards, it will work regardless of the manufacturer Used to connect external display devices such as projectors and monitors Analog video signal Three rows of five pins (15 pins) Uses a DE-15 connector (see
graphic) Video Graphics Port (VGA) Used to connect display devices: -A : Analog ; -D : Digital -I : Both Supports one or two cable connectors Single link Dual link 24 + 4 connector (typically white) Digital Visual Interface DVI High Definition Connectors
HDMI + Display Port Send high quality digital video signals and audio signals Used to connect HDTV and Monitors Display port has a "C" shaped connector with a bevel HDMI (high definition multimedia interface) Mostly an Apple product for connecting external displays Combines PCI Express (PCIe) Bus and Display port into a single connector White/Black contrast connector designed for the MacBook Pro
Thunderbolt It is used for connecting external displays Slightly better resolution than RCA Also MiniDin 4 connector Seperated Video S-Video Round shaped connector with 4 pins Universal Serial Bus USB Most common computer ports Connects a variety of devices Has many types (A is shown here)
Up to 10 Gbps in speed TRS Audio Jacks Used to send and receive analog audio signals using a 3.5mm TRS connector Speakers Headphones Microphones Audio Output devices
Color coded to denote port types Green: Line Out (main speakers/headphones) (Stereo) Pink: mic in Blue: Line in (MIDI, Pre-Amp) Orange: Center/Subwoofer Black: Rear speakers
Brown: Mid Speakers (7.1 Audio) ( 5.1 Audio) S/PDIF Connectors Sony/Phillips Digital Information Format Used to send a digital audio signal to high-end audio devices such as Dolby Digital surround sound systems. Coaxial S/PDIF ports use a copper coaxial cable to transmit signals Fiber S/PDIF ports use fiber optic cables to transmit signals RJ-11 / RJ-45 ports RJ45 used to create Ethernet networks by connecting multiple computers and networking devices. Has eight wires in four pairs
RJ11 used by telephone and modems to send analog signals. Has four wires in two pairs Legacy Connectors PS/2 (mini Din-6): Green for mouse, Purple for keyboard Serial Port: RS232 / RS485 used for connecting dialup modems, serial mouse, bar code readers Parallel Port: IEEE1284 Used by printers, hard drives and joysticks Gameport: DB-15 connector used for joysticks, MIDI devices and gamepads. Found on older sound cards ElectroStatic Discharge [ESD] The threat of ESD begins when the fragile components (including the processor, hard drives, memory, motherboard, and expansion cards) inside the computer are exposed. You can cause damage simply by placing a fingertip too close to a component inside an open computer case. ESD charges can travel through wires and into components, where the wires can explode or fuse together, causing the components to fail. ESD can cause immediate failure of components or could gradually degrade components, causing only intermittent problems. It takes very little ESD to damage a component. A discharge of as little as 10 volts can damage a
component, but 3,000 volts or more of ESD must occur before you can even feel it. Keep the relative humidity in the room high, ideally around 70%, and temperature between 72-77 degrees. The key is to avoid dry air in the computer repair location to prevent ESD. Use antistatic mats under the PC and on the floor. Discharge yourself before touching any computer component. When touching anything inside the computer, wear an antistatic wrist strap that is attached to the metal PC chassis with an alligator clip . Ground both yourself and the computer to the same ground. This provides a single path for the flow of electrical potential. Use static-resistant materials to handle computer components. Never touch the metal connectors on a circuit board. Keep the computer repair location free of materials that accumulate electric charges, such as plastic and Styrofoam. Store sensitive components in static shielding bags, which are usually grey. Static-resistant bags are not nearly as effective. They are usually tinted pink or blue. If a wrist strap is unavailable, keep your body in constant contact with the metal frame when working inside the computer. Trouble Shooting Steps 1. Identify the Problem
2. Back up the system 3. Identify possible causes and identify a theory of probable cause 4. Test you Theory 5. Create an Action Plan 6. 7.
8. When identifying the problem, resist the urge to start fixing things at this point Before making changes, back up the user system data to protect against data loss Check for simple, obvious and common problems first. Like power, connectors. Ect Test your theory to verify the cause of the problem. If
your theory is wrong, examine other causes To create an action plan, address the most likely problem and account for the side effects of the proposed plan. When all side effects have been weighted against the fix and all concerns addressed, fix the problem When you are testing your solution, ensure the problem is fully resolved and no new problem occurred from implementation Ensure the clients satisfaction and explain the steps taken to fix the problem. Have the client perform tasks to ensure they are satisfied
Documentation provides a record of what the problem was, the cause(s) of the problem and the satisfactory solution Test the Solution Ensure Satisfaction Documentation of the solution Form Factors Motherboards adhere to design specifications called form factors. The form factor determines the physical characteristics of a motherboard, including its dimensions, number of expansion slots, and mounting hole locations, as well as the
back-panel dimensions, arrangement, and orientation. The following graphic and table describe the characteristics of the most common motherboard form factors: 1. ATX 2. ITX 3. NLX 4. BTX Most commonly used form factor today Advanced Technology Extended Common to all ATX factors are: 24 pin Main Power connector On-off switch runs from case to motherboard Soft power control (Operating System can shut off PC) Expansion slots are evenly spaced All mounting holes are standardized (any ATX
board can fit in ATX case) CPU is near the top close to the power supply ATX Standards Standard ATX 12" by 9.6" ; Up to seven expansion slots; Up to 8 RAM slots; Typ. 1 CPU socket; Between 6 and 9 mounting holes Extended ATX (EATX) MicroATX (ATX) 12" by 13"; Up to two CPU sockets, Up to 16 RAM slots, Typ 2 Expansion Slots; used for servers 9.6" by 9.6"; 1 CPU Socket, Up to 4 expansion slots; Up to 4 RAM slots Designed for low-power, small form factor computers. Comprised of Mini-ITX, Nano-ITX,
Pico-ITX, and Mobile-ITX Integrated Technology Extended Mini-ITX: mostly used for Home Theater PC (HTPC); 6.7" by 6.7"; 1 Expansion slot; 100W power Supply; can fit in an ATX case due to compatible mounting holes Nano-ITX: 4.7" by 4.7"; used typically in tablets Pico-ITX: 3.9" by 2.7"; used mostly in DYI computer kits (i.e. Raspberry Pi) Mobile-ITX: 2.9" by 1.7"; used mostly in smart phone technologies New LowProfile Extended Legacy form factor designed for slim case PC Uses a detachable riser card to provide
expansion slots; none on motherboard Allow the motherboard to slide in and out of the case easily Replaced by microATX and Mini-ITX Balanced Technology Extended Initially designed with the backing of HP and Dell to replace ATX CPU is positioned in such a way that air flow is increased There is no heatsink fan. Instead a shroud is utilized to direct air from the fan to the side of the heat sink The back panel and mounting bracket are reversed from ATX to avoid backwards compatibility TOWERS
Full towers: compatible with all ATX standards Mid towers: slightly less expansion and drive bays. Compatible with ATX, micro-ATX, mini-ITX, and some EATX Micro-ATX tower: Only have one drive bay. Compatible with micro-ATX and Mini-ITX Mini-ITX: only compatible with mini-ITX boards Notebooks/Laptops: Proprietary form factor Power Suplies AC Power DC Power 120V at 60Hz United States 240V at 50Hz Europe Alternates between positive and negative voltages at high current Required to run electronic devices 12V ; 5V; +3.3V out of the power supply
Rail voltages to load balance Comprised of connectors to interface with PC: 20+4 Main, 4/8 pin CPU, 6+2 pin PCIe, 15 pin SATA Troubleshooti ng Power Supply Symptoms of bad power supply include: The computer does not turn on The computer sporadically shuts off or reboots A broken or noisy fan Before opening up the computer, rule out the obvious. Make sure: The power cord is plugged into the wall. The power switch is in the on position.
The voltage switch is set to the correct voltage. Test the power supply using a multimeter or power supply tester. Voltage levels should be within +/- 5% of normal. If they aren't, the power supply is bad or failing and should be replaced. 12 V rail should be between 11.4 and 12.6 volts. 5 V rail should be between 4.7 and 5.25 volts. 3.3 V rail should be between 3.1 and 3.4 volts. Because power supplies carry dangerous levels of electrical current, always take proper safety precautions. Never ground yourself when working on a power supply. Never open or disassemble a power supply. Always replace the entire unit. Motherboard Comprised of a CPU socket, memory slots, expansion slots, on-board components, I/O connectors, internal connectors, Firmware, CMOS battery, Chipset, Support documentation
CPU Socket will be Intel or AMD (32-bit or 64-bit, cache size, multicore) Expansion slots will support: PCI, PCIe, AGP(legacy), PCI-X (legacy) Onboard: Video, Ethernet, Sound, IEEE1394, USB [integrated] I/O connectors: Back panel Internal Connecors: Front Panel (reset, speaker, power, power LED, HDD LED) Firmware: BIOS / UEFI Chipset: CPU handles Memory and Video, Hubs handle everything else. Intel is PCH (platform contoller hub) / AMD is FCH (fusion controller hub) CMOS battery used to keep accurate date/time and retain BIOS settings Support documentation: Book or PDF that outlines the functionality of the motherboard Processor Points 1. Four levels of cache 2. Hyper threading allows a processor to perform 2 parallel tasks 3. Throttling (mobile CPU's) will scale speed and performance based on battery 4. Overclocking is ramping up the front side clock to increase performance. Also increases voltage and affects RAM. May void warrenty 5. Virtualization: Allows for CPU to a resource in a virtual machine 6. Requires cooling: Air, Liquid, Active or Passive sinking 7. Utilize PGA (pin grid array) or LGA (land grid array). PGA pins on CPU, LGA
uses conducting pads 8. To install a CPU: ESD precautions. Insert CPU into socket and lock into place. Use thermal paste on CPU. Apply heat Sink. Add cooling system Random Access Memory Static RAM (SRAM) Dynamic RAM (DRAM) SRAM is more complex and less dense (e.g., lower storage capacity) than DRAM. SRAM is faster and requires less power than DRAM. Regular SRAM still requires periodic power to maintain the state of memory, but the rate of refresh is less than with DRAM. Non-volatile SRAM (nvSRAM) is able to maintain memory contents when the power is turned off. SRAM is typically used in cache memory, such as CPU cache, hard disk cache, and cache in networking devices.
DRAM is simple to implement. DRAM can have a very high density (e.g., high storage capacity). Because of the simplicity, DRAM is relatively inexpensive. DRAM is used in the main system memory on a computer. Dynamic RandomAccess Memory Family Double Data Rate (DDR) Variant of standard SDRAM; accepts 1 command and two consectutive data sets per bus clock
Twice the bandwidth of SDRAM. Operates at 2.5V at frequencies of 100-200MHz. 184 pins DDR 2 Double the bandwidth of DDR. 1 command and four consectutive data sets per bus clock. Operates at 1.8V at 200533MHz. Has 240 smaller pins with notch slightly close to center Dynamic RandomAccess Memory Family DDR 3
Doubles the bandwidth of DDR2 for eight consectutive data sets per bus clock Twice the bandwidth of SDRAM. Operates at 1.5V at frequencies of 400-1000MHz. 240 pins. Max capacity of 128GB/stick DDR 4 Double the bandwidth of DDR3. 1 command and eight consectutive data sets per bus clock. Operates at 1.2V at 1066 to 2133MHz. Has 288 pins. Low power and not compatible with other DDR memory. Max capacity of 512GB/stick Dual Inline Memory Module SO-DIMM (Small Outline)
Uni-DIMM (Universal) 144 pins (DDR / DDR2) legacy 200 pins (DDR2 / DDR3) Used for notebooks / laptops 200 pins (DDR3 / DDR 4) Backwards compatible to 200 pin SO-DIMM Used for notebooks / laptops Memory Bandwidth versus Speed DDR Rating (bus speed) The number following the DDR-, DDR2-, and DDR3- prefixes is the data transfer rate (twice the bus frequency). For example, DDR-400 matches a bus frequency of 200 MHz; DDR2800 has a bus frequency of 400 MHz; and DDR3-1600 has a bus
frequency of 800 MHz. PC Rating (bandwidth MB/Sec) The bandwidth is 16 times the bus frequency, or 8 times the DDRdesignation. For example, DDR-400 has a bandwidth of 3200 MB (PC-3200); DDR2-800 has a bandwidth of 6400 MB (PC-6400); and DDR31600 has a bandwidth of 12800 MB (PC-12800) Read Only Technology Unified Extensible Firmware Interface Basic Input Output System The UEFI was designed to replace the BIOS. Important things about UEFI are: The UEFI is firmware. The UEFI program controls the startup process and loads the operating system into memory.
The UEFI design improves the software interoperability and the address limitations of BIOS. The UEFI provides better security to protect against bootkit (malware attacks on the boot process) attacks. The UEFI provides faster startup times. The UEFI supports drives larger than 2.2 terabytes. The UEFI supports 64-bit firmware device drivers. The UEFI is compatible with both BIOS and UEFI hardware. The BIOS is a legacy program stored in a read-only memory (ROM) chip that the CPU automatically loads and executes when it receives power. Important things to know about the BIOS are: The BIOS program controls the startup process and loads the operating system into memory. The BIOS is firmware. You should frequently check for BIOS updates from the manufacturer. Updating the BIOS (called flashing the BIOS) makes new features available, such as allowing the BIOS to recognize newer hardware devices.
Most BIOS chips vary from 265 KB to 1 MB in size. Read Only Technology Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor The EEPROM is a RAM chip that replaced the CMOS chip. Important things about EEPROM are: EEPROM is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data. EEPROM allows individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed. EEPROM replaced EPROM chips and are used for computer BIOS built after 1994. EEPROM chips allow you to update the BIOS/UEFI in your computer without having to open the computer and remove any chips.
CMOS is legacy computer chip technology that has become a general term used for the program that stores important system information related to the starting of a computer. It is often used synonymously with BIOS. Data held in CMOS includes the hard disk type and configuration, the order of boot devices, and other configurable settings related to the system hardware Change the data stored using an editor built into the BIOS Used to keep the real time clock running Video Cards Integrated Integrate the GPU with another hardware component (e.g., a motherboard or CPU) Share system memory for graphic processing
Are much cheaper than dedicated video cards, but are also less powerful Dedicated Are installed in an expansion slot on the motherboard Have a graphics processing unit (GPU) and a dedicated, high-speed video memory bank Are more powerful than integrated video cards, but are also more expensive Characteristics of Video Cards Display Connectors: VGA, DVI, HDMI, Display Port Display Quality: Resolution (Number of pixels displayed on screen) and Refresh rate (how many times an image is redrawn on screen per sec) Processing: Dedicated GPU will outperform an Integrated CPU Memory: Dedicated utilizes GDDR memory (3/5/6); Integrated uses DDR main memory (3 / 4)
Bus: PCI Express (PCIe) X16 or PCI / AGP (legacy) Multi-GPU: NVidia SLI / AMD Crossfire HDCP (Digital Content Protection) - prevents piracy by encoding Characteristics of Sound Cards Utilize a custom CPU called a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) Convert analog signals to digital to be manipulated and back to analog to play Typically integrated through mini-PCIe bus on the mothboard or PCIe X1 expansion bus Channels allows audio to be split left and right. 2ch stereo, 4ch quadraphonic, 5.1ch and 7.1 are surround sound Sample rate determines number of samples taken from a source per second. The more it is sampled, the better the reproduction Supports digital audio through S/PDIF connector; analog through TRS connectors CODECS (coders/decoders) required to listen to audio files Cooling Recommendations Because proper airflow is necessary to keep components cool, consider the following recommendations to ensure optimal system cooling:
Keep the case free of dust and debris. Excess dust can restrict airflow and prevent proper heat transfer. Reduce the number of airflow obstructions. Employ proper cable management (e.g., bundle cables together and secure unused cables to the case). Space out multiple hard disk drives instead of stacking them next to each other. Do not use an excess number of expansion cards. Maintain appropriate ambient temperatures. Optimal ambient temperatures are between 60 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. For server rooms, the ambient temperature might be as low as 45 degrees. Ensure proper ventilation. Keep air intakes and exhausts free from obstructions. Leave space between the computer and any walls or desks. Preserve negative pressure inside the case by keeping all covers and shields installed (e.g., unused expansion cards, I/O shield, front drive bays).
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