American History The Vietnam War The United States

American History The Vietnam War The United States

American History The Vietnam War The United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties abroad and assassinations and antiwar demonstrations at home. 1 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History The Vietnam War ESSENTIAL QUESTION Should the United States have gotten involved in the conflict in Vietnam? LESSON 1

Moving Toward Conflict LESSON 2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation LESSON 3 A Nation Divided LESSON 4 1968: A Tumultuous Year LESSON 5 The End of the War and its Legacy 2

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 1 Moving Toward Conflict To stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, the United States uses its military to support South Vietnam. 3 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 1 Moving Toward Conflict

America Supports France in Vietnam United States seeks to strengthen ties with France, help fight spread of communism America provides the French with massive economic and military support French Rule in Vietnam Late 1800sWorld War II, France rules most of Indochina Ho Chi Minhleader of Vietnamese independence movement; helps create Indochinese Communist Party 1940, Japanese take control of Vietnam Vietminhorganization that aims to rid Vietnam of foreign rule Sept. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation 4 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 1

America Supports France in Vietnam (continued) France Battles the Vietminh French troops move into Vietnam; French fight, regain cities, South 1950, U.S. begins economic aid to France to stop communism The Vietminh Drive Out the French Domino theorycountries can fall to communism like row of dominoes 1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien Phu; France surrenders Geneva Accords divide Vietnam at 17th parallel; Communists get north Election to unify country called for in 1956 5 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 1 The United States Steps In After France retreat, United States takes more active role in halting communism in Vietnam Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations provide economic and military aid to South Vietnam Diem Cancels Elections Ho has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distribution S. Vietnams anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem refuses election U.S. promises military aid for stable, reform government in South Diem corrupt, stifles opposition, restricts Buddhism

Vietcong (Communist opposition group in South) kills officials Ho sends arms to Vietcong along Ho Chi Minh Trail 6 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 1 The United States Steps In (continued) Kennedy and Vietnam Like Eisenhower, JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisers Diems popularity plummets from corruption, lack of land reform Diem starts strategic hamlet program to fight Vietcong villagers resent being moved from ancestral homes Diem presses attacks on Buddhism; monks burn themselves in protest U.S.-supported military coup topples government; Diem assassinated

7 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 1 President Johnson Expands the Conflict Lyndon Johnson escalates the nations role in Vietnam The South Grows More Unstable Succession of military leaders rule S. Vietnam; country unstable LBJ thinks U.S. can lose international prestige if communists win The Tonkin Gulf Resolution

Alleged attack in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel enemy 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution gives him broad military powers 1965 8 Americans killed, LBJ orders sustained bombing of North U.S. combat troops sent to S. Vietnam to battle Vietcong 8 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation The United States sends troops to fight in Vietnam, but the war quickly turns into a stalemate. 9

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation Johnson Increases U.S. Involvement Much of the nation supports Johnsons determination to contain communism in Vietnam After 1965, Johnson begins sending large numbers of American troops to fight Strong Support for Containment LBJ hesitates breaking promise to keep troops out; works with: Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk Congress, majority of public support sending troops The Troop Buildup Accelerates General William WestmorelandU.S. commander in South Vietnam

Thinks southern Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ineffective Requests increasing numbers; by 1967 500,000 U.S. troops 10 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 2 Fighting in the Jungle Jungle terrain and guerrilla tactics turn war into frustrating stalemate for U.S. troops An Elusive Enemy Vietcong use hit-and-run, ambush tactics, move among civilians Tunnels help withstand airstrikes, launch attacks, connect villages Terrain laced with booby traps, land mines laid by U.S., Vietcong A Frustrating War of Attrition Westmoreland tries to destroy Vietcong morale through attrition

Vietcong receive supplies from China, U.S.S.R.; remain defiant U.S. sees war as military struggle; Vietcong as battle for survival 11 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 2 Fighting in the Jungle (continued) The Battle for Hearts and Minds U.S. wants to stop Vietcong from winning support of rural population Weapons for exposing tunnels often wound civilians, destroy villages napalm: gasoline-based bomb that sets fire to jungle Agent Orange: leaf-killing, toxic chemical Search-and-destroy missions move civilian suspects, destroy property Villagers go to cities, refugee camps; 1967, over 3 million refugees

Sinking Morale Guerrilla warfare, jungle conditions, lack of progress lower morale Many soldiers turn to alcohol, drugs; some kill superior officers Government corruption, instability lead S. Vietnam to demonstrate 12 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 2 Fighting in the Jungle (continued) Fulfilling a Duty Most U.S. soldiers believe in justice of halting communism Fight courageously, take patriotic pride in fulfilling their duty

13 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 2 The Early War at Home Vietnam War drags onsupport begins to waver; Johnsons domestic programs unravel The Great Society Suffers War grows more costly with more troops; inflation rate rising LBJ gets tax increase to pay for war, check inflation has to accept $6 billion funding cut for Great Society The Living-Room War Combat footage on nightly TV news shows stark picture of war Critics say credibility gap between administration reports and events Senator J. William Fulbrights hearings add to doubts about war 14

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 3 A Nation Divided An antiwar movement in the U.S. pits supporters of the governments war policy against those who oppose it. 15 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 3 A Nation Divided

The Working Class Goes to War Young Americans resist going to war in a faraway place for questionable cause A Manipulatable Draft Selective Service System, draft, calls men 1826 to military service Thousands look for ways to avoid the draft Manymostly white, affluentget college deferment 80% of U.S. soldiers come from lower economic levels 16 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued

American History Lesson 3 The Working Class Goes to War (continued) African Americans in Vietnam African Americans serve in disproportionate numbers in ground combat Defense Dept. corrects problem by instituting draft lottery in 1969 Racial tensions high in many platoons; add to low troop morale Women Join the Ranks 10,000 women serve, mostly as military nurses Thousands volunteer: American Red Cross, United Services Organization 17 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 3

The Roots of Opposition College students across the country become powerful, vocal group of war protestors The New Left New Leftyouth movement of 1960s, demand sweeping changes Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Free Speech Movement (FSM): criticize big business, government; want greater individual freedom Campus Activism New Left ideas spread across colleges Students protest campus issues, Vietnam war 18 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 3

The Protest Movement Emerges Spring 1965college groups begin hosting teach-ins to protest war As war continues, protests grow and divide the country The Movement Grows In 1965, protest marches, rallies draw tens of thousands 1966, student deferments require good academic standing SDS calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad Small numbers of returning veterans protest; protest songs popular From Protest to Resistance Antiwar demonstrations, protests increase, some become violent Some men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada 19 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued

American History Lesson 3 The Protest Movement Emerges (continued) War Divides the Nation Doves strongly oppose war, believe U.S. should withdraw Hawks favor sending greater forces to win the war 1967 majority of Americans support war, consider protesters disloyal Turmoil in the Johnson Administration LBJ continues slow escalation, is criticized by both hawks and doves Combat stalemate leads Defense Secretary McNamara to resign 20 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 4

1968: A Tumultuous Year An enemy attack in Vietnam, two assassinations, and a chaotic political convention make 1968 an explosive year. 21 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 4 1968: A Tumultuous Year The Tet Offensive Turns the War 1968 begins with surprise Vietcong attacks in South Vietnam American public stunned; people with moderate views turn against the war

A Surprise Attack 1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate Tet (Vietnamese new year) Vietcong among crowd attack over 100 towns, 12 U.S. air bases Tet offensive lasts 1 month before U.S., S. Vietnam regain control Westmoreland declares attacks are military defeat for Vietcong 22 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 4

The Tet Offensive Turns the War (continued) Tet Changes Public Opinion Before Tet, most Americans hawks; after Tet, hawks, doves both 40% Mainstream media openly criticizes war LBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of Defense After studying situation, Clifford concludes war is unwinnable LBJs popularity drops; 60% disapprove his handling of the war 23 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 4

Days of Loss and Rage Growing division over Vietnam leads to shocking political development Americans endure two assassinations, urban riots, college campus protests Johnson Withdraws Senator Eugene McCarthy runs for Democratic nomination as dove Senator Robert Kennedy enters race after LBJs poor showing in NH LBJ announces will seek peace talks, will not run for reelection Violence and Protest Grip the Nation Riots rock over 100 cities after Martin Luther King, Jr. is killed Kennedy wins CA primary; is fatally shot for supporting Israel Major demonstrations on over 100 college campuses 24 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History

Lesson 4 A Turbulent Race for President Chaos and violence climax in August at Democratic National Convention Thousands of demonstrators converge on Chicago to protest; bloody riot with police Fractures Democratic Party; Republican wins the White House Turmoil in Chicago Vice-president Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nomination Over 10,000 demonstrators go to Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley mobilizes police, National Guard Protesters try to march to convention; police beat them; rioting Delegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar plank

25 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 4 A Turbulent Race for President (continued) Nixon Triumphs Nixon works for party for years, wins 1968 Republican nomination Campaign promises: restore law and order, end war in Vietnam

Governor George Wallace is third-party candidate Champions segregation, states rights; attracts protest-weary whites Nixon wins presidency 26 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 5 The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon institutes his Vietnamization policy, and Americas longest war finally comes to an end. 27 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

American History Lesson 5 The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon and Vietnamization New president Richard Nixon announces first U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam U.S. war against North Vietnam continues even as troops leave The Pullout Begins Nixon finds negotiations not progressing National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger works on new plan VietnamizationU.S. troops withdraw, S. Vietnam troops take over Peace with Honor Nixon calls for peace with honor to maintain U.S. dignity Orders bombing of N. Vietnam, Vietcong hideouts in Laos, Cambodia

28 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 5 Trouble Continues on the Home Front Many average Americans support the president Events of war continue to divide the country Nixon believes he has firm backing of silent majoritymoderate, mainstream people who support war The My Lai Massacre News breaks that U.S. platoon massacred civilians in My Lai village Lt. William Calley, Jr., in command, is convicted, imprisoned The Invasion of Cambodia 1970, U.S. troops invade Cambodia to clear out enemy supply centers 1.5 million protesting college students close down 1,200 campuses

29 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 5 Trouble Continues on the Home Front (continued) Violence on Campus National Guard kills 4 in confrontation at Kent State University Guardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State in MS 100,000 construction workers rally in NYC to support government The Pentagon Papers Nixon invades Cambodia; Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution Pentagon Papers show plans to enter war under LBJ Confirm belief of many that government not honest about intentions

30 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 5 The Long War Ends March 1972North Vietnamese launch largest attack since Tet Offensive Nixon orders massive bombing campaign; mines laid in Haiphong harbor Bombings halt North Vietnamese; stalemate continues Nixon administration takes steps to end Americas involvement in Vietnam Peace is at Hand

1971, 60% think U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam by end of year 1972 N. Vietnamese attack; U.S. bombs cities, mines Haiphong harbor Kissinger agrees to complete withdrawal of U.S.: Peace is at hand 31 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 5 The Long War Ends (continued) The Final Push S. Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks break off; bombing resumes Congress calls for end to war; peace signed January 1973 The Fall of Saigon Cease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North invades 1975

32 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Lesson 5 The War Leaves a Painful Legacy 58,000 Americans, over 2 million North, South Vietnamese die in war Many Americans more cautious about foreign affairs; cynical attitude towards government American Veterans Cope Back Home Returning veterans face indifference, hostility at home About 15% develop post-traumatic stress disorder 1981U.S. government commissions Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington DC; hold competition for design Further Turmoil in Southeast Asia Communists put 400,000 S. Vietnamese in labor camps; 1.5 million flee

Civil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize power Want to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million people 33 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Continued American History Lesson 5 The War Leaves a Painful Legacy The Legacy of Vietnam Government abolishes military draft 1973 Congress passes War Powers Act: president must inform Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops 90 day maximum deployment without Congressional approval War contributes to cynicism about government, political leaders

34 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button. 35 Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company American History Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4 3. In the Print what box, choose the

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