Oxidation Reduction Chemisty: Redox Chemistry Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation Reduction Chemisty: Redox Chemistry Oxidation and Reduction reactions always take place simultaneously. Loss of electrons oxidation (Increase in Oxidation Number) Ex:Na ------> Na+1 + e-1 Gain of electrons - reduction ( Decrease in Oxidation Number) Cl2 + 2 e-1 ------> 2 Cl-1

Oxidation occurs when a molecule does any of the following: Loses electrons Loses hydrogen Gains oxygen If a molecule undergoes oxidation, it has been oxidized and it is the reducing agent (aka reductant).

Reduction occurs when a molecule does any of the following: Gains electrons Gains hydrogen Loses oxygen If a molecule undergoes reduction, it has been reduced and it is the

oxidizing agent (aka oxidant). zinc is being oxidized while the copper is being reduced. Why? Redox reactions involve electron transfer: Lose e - =Oxidation Cu (s) + 2 Ag + (aq) Ag(s)

Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Gain e - =Reduction

Oxidation Numbers Rules for Assigning Oxidation States The oxidation state of an atom in an uncombined element is 0. The oxidation state of a monatomic ion is the same as its charge. Oxygen is assigned an oxidation state of 2 in most of its covalent compounds. Important exception: peroxides (compounds containing the O2 2- group), in which each oxygen is assigned an

oxidation state of 1) In its covalent compounds with nonmetals, hydrogen is assigned an oxidation state of +1 For a compound, sum total of ON s is zero. For an ionic species (like a polyatomic ion), the sum of the oxidation states must equal the overall charge on that ion. Redox:

Reduction occurs when an atom gains one or more electrons. Ex: Oxidation occurs when an atom or ion loses one or more electrons. Ex: LEO goes GER Copper metal reacts with silver nitrate to form silver metal and copper nitrate:

Cu + 2 Ag(NO3) 2 Ag + Cu(NO3)2. Identifying OX, RD, SI Species Ca0 + 2 H+1Cl-1 Ca+2Cl-12 + H20 Oxidation = loss of electrons. The species becomes more positive in charge. For example, Ca0 Ca+2, so Ca0 is the species that is oxidized. Reduction = gain of electrons. The species becomes more

negative in charge. For example, H+1 H0, so the H+1 is the species that is reduced. Spectator Ion = no change in charge. The species does not gain or lose any electrons. For example, Cl-1 Cl-1, so the Cl-1 is the spectator ion. Writing Half-Reactions Ca0 + 2 H+1Cl-1 Ca+2Cl-12 + H20 Oxidation: Ca0 Ca+2 + 2e Reduction: 2H+1 + 2e- H20

The two electrons lost by Ca0 are gained by the two H+1 (each H+1 picks up an electron). PRACTICE SOME! Practice Half-Reactions

Dont forget to determine the charge of each species first! 4 Li + O2 2 Li2O Oxidation Half-Reaction: Reduction Half-Reaction: Zn + Na2SO4 ZnSO4 + 2 Na Oxidation Half-Reaction: Reduction Half-Reaction:

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