Volumes Tidal Volume (TV) = volume of air

Volumes Tidal Volume (TV) = volume of air

Volumes Tidal Volume (TV) = volume of air during one resting respiratory cycle. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) = volume of air that can be forcefully expired, following a resting expiration. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) = Volume of air that can be forcefully inspired, following resting inspiration.

Residual Volume (RV) = Volume of air that remains in lungs. About 1200mL. Capacities Vital Capacity (VC) = maximal amount of air that can be expired after maximal inspiration. VC = TV + IRV + ERV Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) = Amount of air that remains in lungs following a relaxed expiration. FRC = ERV + RV

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) = Maximal volume of air in lungs. TLC = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or TLC = VC + RV Inspiration. a. Relaxed inspiration. Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract. b. Forceful inspiration. Diaphragm and external intercostal are supplemented by the sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor muscles.

Expiration. a. Normal expiration is due to elastic recoil of lungs and abdominal organs. b. Forceful expiration is supplemented by the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal wall muscles. Factors Affecting Breathing 1. Medullary Respiratory Center detects changes in CO2 and H+ (pH) concentrations

Major Stimulus for breathing CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+ 2. Carotid Bodies & Aortic Bodies detects changes in O2 concentrations

Hering-Breuer Reflex: Stretch receptors in lung tissues are stimulated during inspiration. Sensory impulses travel via the vagus nerve to the pneumotaxic center of the respiratory center in the pons. Duration of inspiration shortens. Prevents overinflation. CO2 + H2O

H2CO3 HCO3- + H+

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