1 Justice sector in Latin America: Where does

1 Justice sector in Latin America: Where does

1 Justice sector in Latin America: Where does it stand? Alejandro Ponce The World Justice Project May 2012 1 This presentation Comparative analysis of current performance of justice institutions in Latin America World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 2 Framework Political dimension Oversight of government branches and making accountable government officials Social and economic dimension Citizen security (criminal justice system) Deterrence and redress, while ensuring that fundamental rights are protected

Dispute resolution (civil justice system) Obtain remedies in conformity with fundamental rights (access, efficiency, and fairness) World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 3 Framework Political dimension Social and economic dimension World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 4 Eastern Europe... Sub-Saharan A... Middle East & ... Latin America... South Asia East Asia & Pac... 1.0

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Developed Oversight function SF 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 5 Oversight function 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

0.2 SF 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 Venezuela Bolivia Guatemala Dominican Republic Argentina Mexico El Salvador Peru Colombia Brazil 0.0 Chile

0.1 6 Impunity SF 1.5 Government officials are sanctioned for misconduct Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 7 Please assume that a high-ranking government officer is taking government money for personal benefit. Please also assume that one of his employees witnesses this conduct, reports it to the relevant authority, and provides sufficient evidence to prove it. Please assume that the press obtains the information and publishes the story. Which one of the following outcomes is most likely? The accusation is completely ignored by the authorities (0.0) An investigation is opened, but it never reaches any conclusions (0.5) The officer is prosecuted and punished (through fines or time in prison) (1.0 ) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] Bolivia

Argentina Mexico Dominican R... El Salvador Peru Colombia Venezuela Guatemala Jamaica Chile 0.0 Brazil 0.2 8

Ciudad de Mxico (27 febrero 2011).- De mil 779 personas denunciadas penalmente por la Secretara de la Funcin Pblica (SFP) por delitos asociados a corrupcin, nicamente una ha sido consignada y qued libre bajo fianza. Y es que la Ley de Servidores Pblicos vigente no considera como delito grave el desvo, la malversacin, el peculado ni ningn otro de los ms de 300 que sanciona, y eso impide que los funcionarios que los cometen sean encarcelados. World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 9 Framework Political dimension Social and economic dimension Citizen security (criminal justice system) World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 10 11 0.0 Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011

Jamaica Brazil Bolivia El Salvador Venezuela Mexico Chile Colombia Guatemala Argentina Peru Dominica... Burglary rates 0.4

0.3 0.2 0.1 12 Business costs of crime and violence Region Score Eastern Europe and Central Asia 5.1 Sub-Saharan Africa 4.3 East Asia & Pacific 5.1 South Asia

4.2 Latin America & Caribbean 3.3 Middle East & North Africa 5.3 Source: WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012 World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 13 Conviction Rates (burglary) 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 Guatemala

Venezuela Peru Brazil Jamaica El Salvador Bolivia Argentina Colombia Chile Mexico 0.00 Rest of the ... 0.02 14

Mob justice Assume that a criminal is apprehended by your neighbors after committing a serious crime. Which of the following two situations is more likely to happen? - The criminal gets beaten by the neighbors - The criminal is turned over to the authorities without harm Region Eastern Europe and Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific South Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa % without harm 70% 29% 62% 45% 41% 56% Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 15

Comparative analysis of the criminal justice system Crimes are effectively investigated. Crimes are effectively and timely adjudicated. The correctional system is effective in reducing criminal behavior. The criminal justice system is impartial. The criminal justice system is free of corruption. The criminal justice system is free of improper government influence. The criminal justice system accords the accused due process of law. World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 16 Effective criminal justice system Region Score Eastern Europe and Central Asia 0.45 Sub-Saharan Africa

0.45 East Asia & Pacific 0.54 South Asia 0.45 Latin America & Caribbean 0.42 Middle East & North Africa 0.47 Developed economies 0.75 Source: WJP Rule of Law Index World2011 Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 17

Criminal justice system Venez... Due process of law Me Bolivia Free of government influence. Argen... El Salv... Free of corruption. Guate... Impartial Colo... Correctional system

Brazil Dominican Repu... Crimes adjudicated. Jam Crimes investigated C 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

4 4.5 18 Comparative analysis of the civil justice system People are aware of available remedies. People can access and afford legal advice and representation. People can access and afford civil courts. Civil justice is free of discrimination. Civil justice is free of corruption. Civil justice is free of improper government influence. Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delays. Civil justice is effectively enforced. World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 19 Framework Political dimension Social and economic dimension Citizen security (criminal justice system) Dispute resolution (civil justice system)

World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 20 Civil dispute During the past three years, have you or someone in your household had a conflict with someone who refused to fulfill a contract or pay a debt? Which one of the following mechanisms was used to solve the conflict? Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 21 Civil disputes Country Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia El Salvador Court 38%

No action 15% 20% 28% 31% 37% 40% 24% Guatemala Mexico Peru Venezuela 40% 36% 35% 32% 36% 21% 34% 13% 14% 12%

Middle Income w/o LA 33% 33% World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 22 Civil disputes Country Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia El Salvador No action rich 15% No action poor 14% 31% 25% 18%

42% 49% 30% Guatemala Mexico Peru Venezuela 6% 33% 9% 14% 7% 25% 37% 17% 14% 22% Middle Income w/o LA 32% 33% World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]

23 Civil disputes Country Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia El Salvador Fair 39% Slow 15% Expensive 44% 76% 76% 59% 55% 47% 15%

67% 85% 51% Guatemala Mexico Peru Venezuela 38% 68% 48% 54% 44% 12% 33% 24% 4% 22% 60% 65% 40% 16% 63% Middle Inc wo LA

54% 21% 39% World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 24 Access to civil justice Region Score Eastern Europe and Central Asia 0.52 Sub-Saharan Africa 0.48 East Asia & Pacific 0.48

South Asia 0.40 Latin America & Caribbean 0.53 Middle East & North Africa 0.55 Developed economies 0.69 Source: WJP Rule of Law Index World2011 Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 25 Access to civil justice Access and afford legal advice 1.00 ADRs

Access and afford civil courts 0.50 Effectively enforced 0.00 Not subject to unreasonable delays Free of discrimination Free of corruption Free of improper government influence Latin America Other middle income High income Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 26 Access to justice Venezuela ADRs

Mexico Enforced Bolivia Quick Guatemala Free of govt. influence Peru Dominican Republic Free of corruption El Salvador Impartial Jamaica Argentina Accessible

Colombia Legal representatio n Brazil Chile 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 27 Summary (1) Substantial variation in the performance of the justice sector in the region There is important variation in the oversight

function, with some countries enjoying a fair system of checks and balances; however the perception of impunity among government officials who break the law remains widespread World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 28 Summary (2) The judicial sector struggles to provide protection from crime or to punish perpetrators of abuses. Nowadays, Latin American countries show the highest crime rates in the world and the criminal justice systems rank among the worst in the world. The performance of civil justice system is mixed, although generally inaccessible for disadvantaged groups World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected] 29 30 Thank you Alejandro Ponce The World Justice Project

[email protected] www.worldjusticeproject.org 30

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