GRAS Overview and Industry Perspectives Aliah Wahab Chr.
GRAS Overview and Industry Perspectives Aliah Wahab Chr. Hansen International Food Additives Council Food Additives: A Global Perspective on Safety Evaluation and Use Hanoi, Vietnam September 13, 2016 Presentation Overview U.S. Food Additive and GRAS Regulatory Background U.S. Food Additive Petition Process U.S. GRAS Process GRAS Determinations GRAS Notifications Value of GRAS Ensuring a Robust GRAS Process Conclusion Safety Evaluation of Food Ingredients in the U.S. According to the U.S. FDA, the term safe means that there is reasonable certainty in the minds of competent scientists that a substance is not harmful under the intended conditions of use.
The term food additive refers to any substance that the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result -- directly or indirectly -- in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food. A substance is Generally Recognized as Safe or GRAS if it is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive. Food Additives and GRAS Background In the U.S., substances are added to food through: Food Additive Petition OR GRAS Determination GRAS Notification Food Additive Petition Process Public rulemaking process
enhances transparency For new substances, substances not considered GRAS, and/or substances without a long history of safe use Petitioner develops a petition and submits to U.S. FDA with all supporting toxicological data (publicly and privately available) Burden to determine safety primarily rests with U.S. FDA After U.S. FDA review, a notice appears in the Federal Register for public review/comment; specifies the conditions of use Once approved, food additives appears in the
Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR Part 172) Slow Process: take years GRAS Process GRAS determinations require scientific evidence of equivalent quantity and quality as that needed for a Food Additive Petition Burden to prove safety primarily rests with the company All data to support the GRAS determination must be publicly available More Timely, less Burdensome on U.S. FDA, promotes innovation and allows for faster time to market GRAS determinations may be based only on the views of
experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of substances directly or indirectly added to food. (21 CFR 170.30) Unique to the U.S. GRAS Determinations Company takes GRAS position based on common knowledge and general acceptance among qualified experts that a substance is safe for its intended use All data to support independent determination must be publicly available GRAS determinations require scientific evidence of equivalent quantity and quality as that needed for a Food Additive Petition
Company is not required to inform FDA of its GRAS determination (i.e., independent determination) IFAC member companies typically use an expert panel for safety determination GRAS Notifications Additional step companies may voluntarily take to enhance transparency Company informs U.S. FDA of its GRAS determination and provides all supporting information to FDA Most information to establish GRAS status must be publicly available Does not require public rulemaking process Manufacturer may meet with FDA prior to notification to review dossier and ask questions (FDA encourages) FDA reviews notification and responds with a letter stating: 1. 2. 3. FDA has no questions The notifier has not provided a basis that the substance is GRAS,
FDA has ceased to review the notification at the request of the notifier U.S. GRAS Notice Inventory lists substances that have been notified since 1998; some GRAS substances are listed in 21 CFR Part 184 Additional GRAS Considerations U.S. FDA recently completed rulemaking on GRAS ruleimpacts self-GRAS and GRAS notifications IFAC not aware of any safety concerns that have arisen from this process FDAs final rule clarifies and strengthens the oversight by better explaining how general recognition of safety is determined IFAC believes the GRAS process works well for industry and FDA; IFAC is supportive of the final rule
IFAC member companies typically use an expert panel for safety determination IFAC developed a GRAS Best Practices Guide to demonstrate industry expectations for making GRAS determinations Food Additive Petition vs. GRAS Processes Level of Evidence Food Additive Petition GRAS Determination (not notified) Same Same Safety Evidence in Public Domain?
Not Required Required Public Rulemaking Process? Who Makes Timing Safety Determination? Yes US FDA Years No Company uses independent experts to make safety determination
Experts make determination; FDA Issues No Questions Letter Weeks/ Months GRAS Notification Same Required No Months Value of the GRAS Process Targeted Use of Limited U.S. FDA Resources Burden to prove safety rests primarily with industry Shorter review times and time to market Takes advantage of common knowledge element and history of safe use 1996: Backlog of food
additive petitions & GRAS affirmation petitions led to calls for reform by President Clinton and the industry 1958: FD&C Act Defines Food Additive (includes GRAS exclusion) FDA Responses (as of September 2015) - 559 responses issued - 81% FDA has no questions - 3% Insufficient basis - 16% Notifier stops process December 2015: FDA has filed nearly 600 GRAS notices (averaging 30 notices/year) Early 1970s: FDA establishes formal GRAS-affirmation petition process Reference: Dr. Toni Mattia, US FDA Value of the GRAS Process
Supports Innovation and Product Development Market-driven innovation spurs demand for substances with functional/health benefits and/or desired technological functionality Facilitates faster market introduction of new and innovative products to meet consumer demand for convenient and healthier options Average time for market clearance (excludes dossier preparation time) Food additive petition
14-18 months (expedited i.e., enhances food safety) >18 months GRAS notification (FDA review only) ~ 180 days (6 months) GRAS expert panel ~ 1 month Ensures safety while fostering innovation The Making of a GRAS Substance - Ensuring a robust GRAS process Identification and Characterization of the Substance Manufacturing Process
Unit operations Raw Materials Chemically Defined vs. Natural Complexes Stability Reaction within food matrix Breakdown of products The Making of a GRAS Substance - Ensuring a robust GRAS process Data to Assess Safety & Support a GRAS Claim Determining Safe Levels of Intake
Literature search for all relevant information Fair & balanced Scope Post-launch product stewardship Monitor & re-evaluate Estimating Daily Intake/Exposure Market intelligence similar competitive products Existing history of use & use levels Background levels from natural sources The Making of a GRAS Substance - Ensuring a robust GRAS process GRAS Expert Panel Training and Experience Qualification Standard FDA would normally look for such qualifications as training and experience in the relevant scientific disciplines, professional positions held, name recognition by fellow members of the scientific community and publications in respected journals in the field. Reference: Rulis, A and Levitt, J. FDAS food ingredient approval process: Safety assurance based on scientific assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2009 Feb; 53(1):20-31.
Independent Advisor vs. expert panel member Conflict of interest assessment SOP Concluding Remarks Substances may be added to food in the U.S. through a Food Additive Petition or following the GRAS process. Food Additive Petitions require public rulemaking; GRAS determinations do not. GRAS determinations require scientific evidence of equivalent quantity and quality as that needed for a Food Additive Petition. The GRAS process is well established, brings value and works well. The food ingredient industry has a vested interest in ensuring a robust and well accepted food system, including the food additive and GRAS processes. The food industry has been and must continue to be diligent to ensure ingredients are safe, through the application of appropriate best practices and
sound scientific principles. The food ingredient industry embraces initiatives to strengthen food safety that are based on sound science and desires to contribute to the discussion by sharing industry specific expert knowledge and concerns. Helpful URLs IFAC website foodingredientfacts.org FDA Food Additive Petition process http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption https:// www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=172 FDA Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) http:// www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/default.htm How to Submit a GRAS Notice http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GRAS/ucm083062.htm U.S. GRAS Notice Inventory http ://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/?set=GRASNotices Questions?
Thank you! Aliah Wahab Regional Regulatory Affairs Director APAC CHR. Hansen Singapore Pte Ltd. [email protected] International Food Additives Council 750 National Press Building Washington, DC USA foodingredientfacts.org
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