Chapter 7 Respiratory System Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for

Chapter 7 Respiratory System Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for

Chapter 7 Respiratory System Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Related Combining Forms Structure Related Combining Forms

Nose nas/o Sinuses sinus/o Pharynx pharyng/o

Larynx laryng/o Epiglottis epiglott/o Trachea trache/o

Bronchi bronch/o, bronchi/o Alveoli alveol/o Lungs pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Functions of Respiratory System Delivers air to the lungs Conveys oxygen from inhaled air to blood Expels waste products through exhalation

Produces airflow through larynx making speech possible Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Structures of Respiratory System (1 of 3) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Structures of Respiratory System (2 of 3) Upper respiratory tract

o Nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea Lower respiratory tract o Bronchial tree and lungs Located within and protected by thoracic cavity Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Structures of Respiratory System (3 of 3) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved.

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nose (1 of 3) Air enters through nose, and passes through nasal cavity Nostrils o External openings of nose Nasal septum o Wall of cartilage dividing the nose into two equal sections Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Nose (2 of 3) Cilia o Thin hair located inside nostrils o Filter incoming air to remove debris Mucous membranes o Specialized tissues lining parts of the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Nose (3 of 3) Mucus o Secretion produced by mucous membranes o Helps moisten, warm, and filter air entering the nose Olfactory receptors o Nerve endings acting as receptors for sense of smell o Also important also for sense of taste Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Tonsils Help protect body from infection entering through nose or mouth Palatine tonsils o Located at back of the mouth Nasopharyngeal tonsils o Located behind the nose and roof of the mouth o Adenoids Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Paranasal Sinuses (1 of 3) (para-: near; nas: nose; -al: pertaining to) Air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane Located in bones of the skull Three functions o Make bones of skull lighter o Give resonance to the voice o Secrete mucus to lubricate nasal cavity Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved.

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Paranasal Sinuses (2 of 3) Four pairs o Frontal sinuses Located in frontal bone just above eyebrows Infection causes pain in this area o Sphenoid sinuses Located in sphenoid bone behind eye and under the pituitary gland Near the optic nerves Infection may damage vision

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Paranasal Sinuses (3 of 3) o Maxillary sinuses Located in maxillary bones under the eyes Infection causes pain in posterior maxillary teeth o Ethmoid sinuses Located in ethmoid bone between nose and eyes Separated from orbital cavity by thin layer of bone

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pharynx (1 of 3) Commonly known as throat Receives air and food Three divisions o Nasopharynx (nas/o: nose; -pharynx: throat) Posterior to nasal cavity; continues downward toward the mouth Transports air only

Opens into the oropharynx Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pharynx (2 of 3) o Oropharynx (or/o: mouth; -pharynx: throat) Visible when looking into the mouth Shared by respiratory and digestive systems Transports air, food, and fluids to the laryngopharynx

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pharynx (3 of 3) o Laryngopharynx (laryng/o: larynx; -pharynx: throat) Shared by respiratory and digestive systems Air, food, and fluids continue to the opening of esophagus and trachea; air enters trachea; food and fluids enter esophagus Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Larynx Also known as voice box Located between pharynx and trachea Supported by nine cartilages; largest is thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple) Contains vocal cords that o Separate to allow passage of air

o Close to assist with sound production Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Protective Swallowing Mechanisms Two mechanisms prevent entrance of food or water into trachea o Soft palate moves up and backward to close off the nasopharynx Prevents food from entering the nose o Epiglottis swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx Prevents food from entering the trachea and lungs

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Trachea (1 of 4) Commonly known as windpipe Transports air to and from lungs

Located in front of the esophagus Held open by flexible C-shaped cartilage rings o Allow food to pass down the esophagus Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Trachea (2 of 4) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Bronchi Primary bronchi branch from trachea to convey air into the two lungs Each bronchus divides and subdivides into increasingly smaller bronchioles Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Alveoli

Also known as air sacs Located at the end of each bronchiole Site of gas exchange Produce surfactant that reduces surface tension of the fluid in the lungs preventing collapse during exhalation Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lungs (1 of 4) Right lung has three lobes

o Upper (superior), middle, lower (inferior) Left lung has two lobes o Upper (superior), lower (inferior) o Space is restricted due to location of the heart Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lungs (2 of 4) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved.

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Mediastinum Middle section of chest cavity Located between the lungs Contains connective tissue Contains organs

o Heart and its veins/arteries, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, thymus gland, lymph nodes Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pleura (1 of 2) Moist membrane covering outer surface of lungs and lining inner surface of thoracic cavity Parietal pleura o Outer layer o Attached to chest wall

o Lines thoracic cavity, covers diaphragm, and forms sac containing each lung Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pleura (2 of 2) Visceral pleura o Inner layer o Attached directly to each lung Pleural cavity (space) o Fluid-filled space between parietal and visceral pleural membranes

o Fluid acts as a lubricant Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diaphragm (1 of 2) Muscle separating thoracic cavity from the abdomen Breathing occurs as diaphragm contracts and relaxes Contraction stimulated by phrenic nerves Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Diaphragm (2 of 2) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Respiration Exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide 1 inhalation + 1 exhalation = 1 respiration Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Inhalation and Exhalation (1 of 2) Inhalation o Breathing in o Diaphragm contracts, and pulls downward; thoracic cavity expands causing vacuum drawing air into lungs Exhalation o Breathing out o Diaphragm relaxes, and moves upward; thoracic cavity narrows forcing air out of lungs

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Inhalation and Exhalation (2 of 2) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. External Respiration With inhalation of air into alveoli, oxygen is passed into capillaries and carried by erythrocytes to body cells Carbon dioxide, as a waste product, is passed into bloodstream and

transported into air spaces for exhalation Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Internal Respiration Exchange of gases within cells of blood and tissues Oxygen passes into cells; carbon dioxide passes into bloodstream where it is transported to the lungs, and expelled during exhalation Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Medical Specialties Related to Respiratory System (1 of 2) Otolaryngologist o Specializes in diagnosing/treating diseases/disorders of head and neck (ot/o: ear; laryng/o: larynx; -ologist: specialist) Pulmonologist o Specializes in diagnosing/treating diseases/disorders of respiratory system (pulmon: lung)

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Medical Specialties Related to Respiratory System (2 of 2) Thoracic surgeon o Performs surgery on organs inside thorax, or chest including heart, lungs, and esophagus

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pathology of Respiratory System Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) o Group of lung diseases o Obstructed bronchial airflow causes difficult exhalation o Common cause: smoking Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chronic Bronchitis (bronch: bronchus; -itis: inflammation) o Inflammation of airways due to recurrent exposure to inhaled irritant (such as cigarette smoke) o Mucus-producing cells increase in size and number resulting in excessive mucus production and thickening of walls of air passages Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Emphysema Progressive loss of lung function

Characterized by decrease in number of alveoli, enlargement of remaining alveoli, and destruction of their walls Lungs overinflate, remain partially expanded resulting in a barrel chest appearance Common cause: smoking Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Asthma

Chronic inflammatory disease of bronchial tubes May be triggered by allergic reaction Partial obstruction of airway results in wheezing May be induced by exercise Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Respiratory Diseases (1 of 6)

Upper respiratory infection and acute nasopharyngitis o Describe the common cold o Usually due to human rhinovirus Allergic rhinitis o Allergic reaction to airborne allergens resulting in increased mucus flow (rhin: nose; -itis: inflammation) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Respiratory Diseases (2 of 6)

Croup o Acute respiratory infection in children and infants o Barking cough and stridor result from obstruction of larynx and swelling around vocal cords Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Respiratory Diseases (3 of 6) Diphtheria o Bacterial infection of throat and upper respiratory tract o Toxins may damage heart muscle and peripheral nerves

o Immunization available Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Respiratory Diseases (4 of 6) Epistaxis o Nosebleed o May be caused by dry air, injury, medication, or hypertension Influenza o Acute, highly contagious viral infection

o Spread by respiratory droplets o Many strains; some may be prevented by annual immunization Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Respiratory Diseases (5 of 6) Pertussis o Whooping cough o Contagious bacterial infection o Paroxysmal cough followed by breathlessness and noisy inspiration o Immunization available

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Respiratory Diseases (6 of 6) Rhinorrhea o Watery flow of mucus from nose (rhin/o: nose; -rrhea: abnormal discharge) Sinusitis o Inflammation of sinuses (sinus: sinus; -itis: inflammation)

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pharynx and Larynx Pharyngitis (pharyng: pharynx) o Sore throat o Inflammation of pharynx Laryngospasm (laryng/o: larynx; -spasm: a sudden involuntary contraction)

o Sudden spasmotic closure of larynx Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Voice Disorders (1 of 2) Aphonia o Loss of ability of larynx to produce normal speech sounds (a-: without; phon: sound or voice: -ia: abnormal condition) Dysphonia o Difficulty in speaking

(dys-: bad) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Voice Disorders (2 of 2) Laryngitis o Inflammation of larynx o Often results in loss of voice (laryng: larynx; -itis: inflammation) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved.

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Trachea and Bronchi (1 of 2) Tracheorrhagia (trache/o: trachea; -rrhagia: bleeding) o Bleeding from mucous membranes of trachea Bronchiectasis (bronch/i: bronchus; -ectasis: stretching or enlargement) o Permanent dilation of bronchi due to chronic infection/inflammation

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Trachea and Bronchi (2 of 2) Bronchorrhea (bronch/o: bronchus; -rrhea: abnormal flow) o Excessive discharge of mucus from bronchi Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Pleural Cavity (1 of 3) Pleurisy (pleur: pleura; -isy: a noun ending) o Inflammation of pleura Pleurodynia (pleur/o: pleura; -dynia: pain) o Sharp pain occurring when inflamed membranes rub together during inhalation

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pleural Cavity (2 of 3) Pleural effusion o Excess accumulation of fluid in pleural space Pyothorax o Presence of pus in pleural cavity between layers of pleural membrane (py/o: pus; -thorax: chest) Empyema

o Collection of pus in a body cavity Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pleural Cavity (3 of 3) Hemothorax o Collection of blood in pleural cavity (hem/o: blood) Pneumothorax (pneum/o: lung or air)

o Accumulation of air in pleural cavity o Causes pressure imbalance preventing full expansion or partial collapse of lung Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lungs (3 of 4) Acute respiratory distress syndrome o Decreased oxygen levels in blood because of life-threatening inflammation in lungs and fluid in alveoli

Atelectasis o Incomplete expansion of a part or all of a lung o Due to obstruction or pneumothorax (atel: incomplete; -ectasis: stretching or enlargement) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lungs (4 of 4) Pulmonary edema o Accumulation of fluid in lung tissues

Pulmonary embolism o Blockage of pulmonary artery by foreign matter or an embolus Pneumorrhagia o Bleeding from the lungs (pneum/o: lungs; -rrhagia: bleeding) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Usually attacks lungs, but may affect other body organs Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis may occur if prescribed regimen of medications is not strictly followed Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pneumonia Named for the Affected Lung Tissue Two types of bacterial pneumonia o Bronchopneumonia (bronch/o: bronchial tubes; pneumon: lung; -ia: abnormal condition) Affects bronchioles

o Lobar pneumonia Affects one or more lobes of a lung Double pneumonia involves both lungs Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pneumonia Named for the Causative Agent (1 of 3) Aspiration pneumonia o Due to inhaling foreign substance into lungs

Bacterial pneumonia o Commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Community-acquired pneumonia o Results from contagious infection outside hospital/clinic Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pneumonia Named for the Causative Agent (2 of 3) Hospital-acquired pneumonia o Acquired during a stay in hospital

Mycoplasma pneumonia o Milder, longer lasting form caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae o Also known as walking pneumonia since the patient is often not bedridden Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pneumonia Named for the Causative Agent (3 of 3) Pneumocystis pneumonia o Opportunistic infection caused by Pneumocystis carinii

Viral pneumonia o Caused by viruses Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Interstitial Lung Disease Group of disorders causing inflammation and scarring of alveoli and their supporting structures Pulmonary fibrosis o Progressive formation of scar tissue in the lung causing decreased lung capacity and difficulty in breathing

(fibros: fibrous connective tissue; -is: noun ending) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Environmental/Occupational Interstitial Lung Diseases (1 of 2) Pneumoconiosis o Fibrosis of lung tissue due to dust inhalation (pneum/o: lung; coni: dust; -osis: abnormal condition or disease) Asbestosis

o Result of inhalation of asbestos particles (asbest: asbestos) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Environmental/Occupational Interstitial Lung Diseases (2 of 2) Silicosis o Result of inhalation of silica dust (silic: glass; - osis: abnormal condition or disease)

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cystic Fibrosis (1 of 2) Life-threatening genetic disorder Large quantities of abnormally thick mucus collect in lungs and pancreas Results in damage to lungs, poor growth, and nutritional deficiencies Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lung Cancer (1 of 2)

Leading cause of cancer death in the United States Cancer cells form in lung tissues Common causes are smoking and inhaling secondhand smoke Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lung Cancer (2 of 2) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Breathing Disorders (1 of 4) Eupnea o Easy or normal breathing (eu-: good; -pnea: breathing) Apnea o Temporary absence of spontaneous respiration (a-: without; -pnea: breathing) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Breathing Disorders (2 of 4) Bradypnea o Less than 10 breaths/minute (brady-: slow; -pnea: breathing) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Breathing Disorders (3 of 4) Cheyne-Stokes respiration o Irregular pattern of alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by slower respiration or apnea

Tachypnea (tachy-: rapid) o More than 20 breaths/minute Dyspnea (dys-: painful) o Difficult or labored breathing Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Breathing Disorders (4 of 4) Hyperpnea (hyper-: excessive)

o Deeper and more rapid than normal breathing, commonly associated with exertion Hypopnea (hypo-: decreased) o Shallow or slow respiration Hyperventilation o Rapid rate of deep respiration, commonly associated with anxiety Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders Sleep apnea o Potentially serious o Breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep o May cause decrease in blood oxygen levels Snoring o Noisy breathing caused by vibration of soft palate Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Coughing Expectoration o Act of coughing up and spitting out saliva, mucus, or other body fluid (expector: cough up; -ation: state or action) Hemoptysis o Expectoration of blood/blood-stained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes (-ptysis: spitting) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Lack of Oxygen (1 of 5) Airway obstruction o Food or foreign object partially or completely blocks airway preventing air from entering or leaving the lungs Anoxia o Absence of oxygen from body tissues/organs even though the flow of blood is adequate Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Lack of Oxygen (2 of 5) Hypoxia o Deficient oxygen levels in body tissues/organs o Less severe than anoxia (hyp-: deficient; ox: oxygen: -ia: abnormal condition) Altitude hypoxia o Due to decreased oxygen in the air at higher altitudes, especially above 8,000 feet Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved.

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lack of Oxygen (3 of 5) Asphyxia o Lack of oxygen leading to loss of consciousness Cyanosis o Bluish discoloration of skin/mucous membranes due to inadequate oxygen supply (cyan: blue; -osis: abnormal condition or disease) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Lack of Oxygen (4 of 5) Hypercapnia o Buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood (capn: carbon dioxide) Hypoxemia o Decreased oxygen levels in the blood Respiratory failure o Medical emergency consisting of either hypoxemia or hypercapnia

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lack of Oxygen (5 of 5) Smoke inhalation o Particles from fire coat alveoli, preventing normal exchange of gases Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden, unexplainable death of apparently healthy sleeping infant

May occur between 2 and 6 months of age Also known as crib death Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (1 of 7) Respiratory rate o Counting of number of breaths/minute Respiratory sounds o Evaluation of sounds heard upon auscultation of lungs

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (2 of 7) Bronchoscopy o Visual examination of bronchi using bronchoscope (bronch/o: bronchus; -scopy: direct visual examination) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (3 of 7) Chest X-ray o Assists with diagnosing lung disorders Laryngoscopy o Visual examination of larynx and vocal cords (laryng/o: larynx; -scopy: a direct visual examination) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (4 of 7)

Peak flow meter o Measures air flow out of the lungs Polysomnography o Measures physiological activity during sleep (poly-: many; somn/o: sleep; -graphy: the process of recording) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (5 of 7) Pulmonary function tests

o Group of tests measuring volume/flow of air into and out of the lungs Spirometer o Measures volume of air inhaled/exhaled and length of time required for each breath (spir/o: to breathe; -meter: to measure) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (6 of 7) Pulse oximeter

o External monitor placed on fingertip or ear lobe to measure oxygen saturation level in the blood (ox/i: oxygen: -meter: to measure) Sputum o Phlegm ejected through mouth o Sputum cytology examines the phlegm to detect cancer cells Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Diagnostic Procedures of Respiratory System (7 of 7)

Phlegm o Thick mucus o Secreted by tissues lining respiratory passages Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Tuberculosis Testing Mantoux PPD skin test o Injection of small amount of PPD tuberculin under the top layer of skin on forearm o Site is checked for reaction after 48-72 hours

Positive result from skin or blood test indicates possibility of exposure to T B o Chest X-ray and sputum cytology for confirmation Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Treatment Procedures of Respiratory System (1 of 2) Antitussive o Prevents or relieves coughing (anti-: against; tuss: cough; -ive: performs) Bronchodilator

o Inhaled medication that relaxes/expands bronchial passages Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Treatment Procedures of Respiratory System (2 of 2) Metered-dose inhaler o Administers medication in aerosol form Nebulizer o Allows for inhalation of a medicated mist via face mask or mouthpiece

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Asthma Treatment Controller medicines o Daily inhalation of corticosteroids Quick-relief (rescue medicines) o Taken at first sign of an attack o Dilate airways Avoid substances that trigger symptoms

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nose, Throat, and Larynx (1 of 3) Endotracheal intubation o Establishing open airway by passage of tube through mouth into the trachea (endo-: within; trache: trachea; -al: pertaining to) Functional endoscopic sinus surgery o Treating chronic sinusitis by enlarging opening between nose and sinus

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nose, Throat, and Larynx (2 of 3) Laryngectomy o Surgical removal of the larynx (laryng: larynx; -ectomy: surgical removal) Laryngotomy o Surgical incision into larynx to relieve upper airway obstruction (laryng: larynx; -otomy: surgical incision)

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nose, Throat, and Larynx (3 of 3) Septoplasty o Surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum (sept/o: septum; -plasty: surgical repair) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Trachea (3 of 4)

Tracheostomy o Surgical creation of stoma into trachea for insertion of temporary or permanent tube to facilitate breathing (trache: trachea; -ostomy: surgically creating an opening) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Trachea (4 of 4) Tracheotomy o Incision into trachea to gain access to the airway below the blockage (trache: trachea; -otomy: surgical incision)

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lungs, Pleura, and Thorax (1 of 4) Pneumonectomy o Surgical removal of all or part of a lung (pneumon: lung; -ectomy: surgical removal) Lobectomy o Surgical removal of a lobe of an organ (lob: lobe)

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lungs, Pleura, and Thorax (2 of 4) Wedge resection o Surgical removal of wedge-shaped piece of cancerous lung and margin of healthy tissue around the cancer Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Lungs, Pleura, and Thorax (3 of 4) Thoracentesis o Surgical puncture of chest wall for removal of fluid from pleural cavity (thor/a: thorax or chest; -centesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid) Thoracotomy o Surgical incision into chest walls for biopsy or for treatment (thorac: chest; -otomy: surgical incision) Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Lungs, Pleura, and Thorax (4 of 4) Video-assisted thoracic surgery o Uses thoracoscope to view inside the pleural cavity Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cystic Fibrosis (2 of 2) Pancreatic enzymes o Aid digestive system Chest percussion

o Removal of excess mucus from the lungs o Allows gravity to assist drainage of secretions Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Respiratory Therapy (1 of 3) Diaphragmatic breathing o Relaxation technique for relief of anxiety CPAP machine o Noninvasive ventilation device

o Used in treatment of sleep apnea o Reduces snoring and prevents dangerous apnea disturbances Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Respiratory Therapy (2 of 3) BiPAP machine o Similar to CPAP, but can be set at higher pressures for inhaling and lower pressures for exhaling Ambu bag

o Emergency resuscitator to assist ventilation Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Respiratory Therapy (3 of 3) Ventilator o Mechanical device for artificial respiration o Supplements natural breathing function o Forces air into the lungs o Exhalation is passive as lungs contract

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Supplemental Oxygen Therapy (1 of 2) Nasal cannula o Small tube divided into two nasal prongs Rebreather mask o Exhaled breath is partially reused, delivering up to 60% oxygen Nonrebreather mask o Higher levels of oxygen added to the air taken in by the patient

Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Supplemental Oxygen Therapy (2 of 2) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy o Special chamber for delivering pure oxygen o Lungs and bloodstream absorb more oxygen resulting in promotion of healing and assistance with fighting infection Ehrlich/Schroeder/Ehrlich/Schroeder, Medical Terminology for Health Professions, 8 th Edition. 2018 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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