UNIT 3 / LANGUAGES Churchill Unit 3 Language Interesting information on Language There really are 50 Eskimo words for
'snow The language with the largest alphabet in the world belongs to the Cambodian language Khmer and is 74 characters long. The shortest alphabet is 12 characters long, and belongs to Rotokas. The language with the most words, however, is English, boasting over
250,000 words. The most widely spoken languages are Chinese, Spanish, English, and Hindi, in that order Every two weeks, another language dies. Or, perhaps, a dialect. There are over 231 completely extinct languages and 2,400 of the worlds languages are considered to be in danger of dying out.
African clicking language: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6W O5XabD-s Learning a second language can make you smarter. A number of scientists agree that becoming polyglot can boost your brainpower. Other studies also suggest that speaking more than one language can help to slow down the
aging process of the mind. There are 50,000 characters in the Chinese language. Youll need to know about 2,000 to read a newspaper English: The most common letter, and vowel, in the English language is the letter it starts with: E. But the most common consonant in English is R, followed by T. More English words begin with the letter S than any other letter. The English word
alphabet is made up of two Greek words, which are the first two letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha and beta. The longest word without a true vowel in it is rhythm. The oldest written language was believed to be written in about 4500 BC. South Africa has 11 official languages the most for a single country.
Where did language come from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWDKsHm6gTA Classifying Languages Institutional Languages: are used in education, work, mass media, and government Many countries designate at least one institutional language as an Official Language which is used by government for laws, reports, and public objects,
such as road signs, money and stamps. It is a language that would be understood by most of the countrys citizens. The US has no official language. Some British colonies designate English as the official language but few of their citizens can speak it. Some countries have more than one official language and require public documents to be in all official languages
EX: Belgium, Albania, Canada, Finland, South Africa has 11 official languages the most for a single country. Literary Language means it is written as well as spoken. The system of written communication includes a method of writing and rules of grammar. Developing Language: is spoken in daily use by
people of all ages, from children to elderly . It also has a literary tradition, through literature and the language may not be widely distributed Vigorous Language: is spoken in daily use by people of all ages, but it
lacks a literary tradition. Languages in danger of dying. Or disappearing from use Should English be the official language of the United States Make English the Official US Language
Do not make English the official US Language 58 countries and 28 US states already make English official A law is unnecessary because English is already the primary language of the United States
Requiring the use of English is a symbol of national unity Knowledge of English is essential for survival in the United States Providing services to non-English speakers is expensive
The government should not interfere with peoples language rights Advocating English only attacks immigrants from non English speaking countries Organizing Language Families
Language Family: is a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history Language Branch: is a collection of languages within a family related through a common ancestral language that existed
several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as between language families and archeological evidence can confirm tat the branches derived from the same family Language Group: is a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display many similarities in grammar and
vocabulary Language families form the trunk of the tree Individual languages are displayed as leaves Some trunks divide into several branches, which represent language branches Distribution of Language Families The two
largest language families #1. Indo-European Is the most widely are used language family , it is the Predominate
language family in Europe, South Asia, North America and Latin America. Distribution of Language Families The two largest language families are #2. Sino-Tibetan relating to
or denoting a large language family of eastern Asia whose branches include Sinitic (Chinese), Tibeto-Burman (Burmese and Tibetan), and, in some classifications, Tai (Thai and Lao) Encompasses languages spoken in the Peoples Republic of China
and several smaller countries in Southeast Asia. No single Chinese language Mandarin is the most-used language in the world and the official language of both the Peoples Republic of China and Taiwan. There are
seven other Sinitic branch languages spoken in China Families Other Asian Language .
Isolation on islands and peninsulas contributed to overall independent development. Austronesian 6% of world. Mostly in Indonesia, the worlds fourth most populous country. With 706 living languages, Predominate language is Javanese
Families Southeast Asia Language Austro Asiaticis spoken by 2% of population, Vietnamese most
spoken. Written with Roman alphabet devised by Roman Catholic missionaries Southeast Asia Japanese Written in part with Chinese
characters also uses two systems of phonetic symbols phonetic symbols, Korean: Korean is written in Hankul in which each letter reprecents a sound. More than half of the
vocabulary comes from Chinese words Other Asian Language Families Dravidian is the principal language family in South
Asia. The origin is unknown Other Asian Language Families Altaic it through to have originated in the
steppes bordering the Qilian Shan and Altai mountains between Tibet and China Most spoken by Turkish. Official language
in Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Families Uralic languages are traceable
back to a common language first used 7,000 years ago by people living in the Ural Mountains in present day Russia, Migrants
carry it to Europe. Estonians, Finns and Hungarians speak languages that belong to the family Other Asian Language
Families 1. Afro-Asiatic Arabic is major language. Official language in 24 countries of S.W. Asia and North Africa 206
million speak the language One of the six official languages In U.N Arabic is also spread because it is the language the Quran It also includes
African Language Families Niger-Congo More than 95% of people in sub Sahara Africa
speak languages of this family. Three most spoken are Yoruba, Igbo and Swahili Swahili is official language in Tanzania Swahili is used to
communicate with outsiders originating through interaction among African Language Families
Nilo-Saharan spoken by 43 million in north central Africa. Divided into six branches African Language
Americas Other Language Family Quechuan is the most widely used language family in the Western Hemisphere other than Indo European Speakers live mainly in the
Andes Mountains of South America. Estimated 9 million speakers Distribution of Indo European Branches Germanic: English belongs to the West Germanic
branch of the Indo European family. It also includes languages in the Norther Germanic group spoken in Scandinavia, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian and
Icelandic, all derive from old Norse Romance Branch Romance Languages: four most widely used are Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian. Mountains
serve as boundaries among these countries Indo-Iranian Branch The branch of Indo European language family with the most speakers It is divided into the Iranian or Western group and the
Indic or Eastern group The major Iranian group includes Persian or Iranian languages in Iran, eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan and Kurdish Most widely used languages in South Asia One very diverse group of
the tree is in India. Hindi is the official language of India. India recognizes 22 Balto Slavic Branch Language Trees Where did English come from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YEaSxhcns7Y
How British and American Spelling Parted Ways https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmxHfRCrMCM Chinese Logograms: are symbols that represent towards of meaningful parts of
words Ideogram: a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases. You would have to
know thousands to read a book Since many symbols represent compound Dialect is a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. Subdialect is a subdivision of a dialect. Two sub-dilects of the same dialect share relatively few differences, primarily in pronunciation and small amounts of vocabulary
Shakespeare accent: https://pastinthepresent.wordpress.com/2016/03/10/hearing-seventeenth-century-colonists-in-the-witch/ Elllen comparing slang: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYmrg3owTRE 21 accents: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3UgpfSp2t6k Standard Language: in a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized which is well established and recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education and mass communication In England this is known as Received Pronunciation RP: it is well known around the world as the dialect commonly used by politicians, broadcasters and actors
Distribution of Dialects in US In the US there are four major dialects North Midland, South and West and cam be traced to differences in the origin of the English colonists along the east Coast. Three distinct dialect regions developed North: 2/3 of the New England colonist
were Puritans from southeastern England and had the characteristic of dropping the r sound South: came from southeastern England with a diverse social class background including deported prisoners, indentured servants and political and religious refugees Midland: more diverse, predominantly
Quakers from north of England, Scots, Irish and Germans, Dutch and Swedish Dialects in US: quiz: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/20/sunday-review/dialect-quiz-map.html?mcubz=3 Hot Spots were languages are dying out What is an Extinct Language? Before a language becomes extinct, it is classified as an endangered language. A
language becomes endangered when the native speaker of a minority group chooses to adapt the language of a larger group, such as English, Spanish or French. When they adapt the language of a larger group, they often neglect to teach their native language to children and younger generations in their culture. A language becomes extinct when the last speaker of a native language dies, in turn
taking the unique language with them. Many languages in the world only have one living speaker; meaning when they die a language dies with them. Where are languages becoming extinct? Language loss is happening throughout the world. According to an article by discovery.com, there are 88 languages in Canada alone that are endangered, or have
already become extinct. There are many endangered languages across South America, Europe, as well as Asia. points out hotspots across the world where certain languages are most endangered. Dying Languages Why does this matter? Many languages have been developed through
oral cultures alone and have not been transcribed into written documents. When we lose a language, it has many cultural and social impacts on society. We lose the ability to understand a cultures way of life and their knowledge and understanding of agriculture, math and religion along with their understanding of the region they once lived. Many words they use describe a situation, and cannot be directly translated into one English word When a language becomes extinct, our entire
understanding of a culture does too. What is being done to prevent language extinction? Organizations, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages are attempting to raise awareness of endangered languages as well as document and maintain languages in small
communities across the world. By making audio and video recordings as well as detailed linguistic notes, linguists hope to prevent language loss, regardless of whether the language is actively spoken or not. Gta' (India) Words have meanings not seen in English words.
Goteh: bring something from an inaccessible place with the help of a long stick buhno: a ladder made from a single bamboo tree Nosore: to free someone from a tiger Poh: to kill lice by pressing them under your nails ruhri: to eat flesh from the bone Ket (Siberia)
Stand can be said in four different ways, depending on what is standing. keh't dghn: a human or animal: person stands u'y yba'ut: an object: cradle stands ohks dghta: a tree: tree stands qu's hvta: a structure: tent stands Maori Language in New Zealand
The haka is a type of ancient Mori war dance traditionally used on the battlefield, as well as when groups came together in peace. Haka are a fierce display of a tribe's pride, strength and unity. Actions include violent foot-stamping, tongue protrusions and rhythmic body slapping to accompany a loud chant. native dance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BI851yJUQQw Rugby players: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5chRqRr8iQs dialect - regional variation of a language ebonics - A dialect of English that has its roots in West African, Caribbean, and US slave languages,
official language - in multi-lingual states, the language selected for use in affairs within government, and communication between government and citizenry isogloss - boundary separating language regions preventing diffusion lingua franca - language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who speak other languages pidgin - form of speech adopting simplified grammar and limited vocab of a lingua franca; used for communication between speakers of different languages Ideogram: a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases
Literary Language means it is written as well as spoken. The system of written communication includes a method of writing and rules of grammar Videos Power of language Ted talk 17 min https://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity?utm_source=tedcomsh are&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=tedspread--b Dialect quiz http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/20/sunday-review/dialect-quiz-map.html?mcubz=3
How English differed in England and America: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmxHfRCrMCM Ted Talk Endangered languages and cultures: 21: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmxHfRCrMCM The surprising pattern behind color names around the world 7 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMqZR3pqMjg Where did English come from? - Claire Bowern 5 min: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YEaSxhcns7Y How languages evolve - Alex Gendler 4 min: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWDKsHm6gTA My Fair Lady "Why Can't The English Learn To Speak?" Music Video 2 min: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8zhp699FXg
6 language trees read: http://eurotalk.com/blog/tag/language-family/ Meet the Last Speaker of a Dying Language 10 min: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/short-film-showcase/meet-the-last-speaker-of-a -dying-language Hugh Laurie: the British slang vs the American 4 min https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYmrg3owTRE
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