Civilizations of Asia (500-1650) Lesson 3 The Mongol

Civilizations of Asia (500-1650) Lesson 3 The Mongol

Civilizations of Asia (500-1650) Lesson 3 The Mongol Empire and Ming China Civilizations of Asia (500-1650) Topic 3 Lesson 3 The Mongol Empire and Ming China Learning Objectives Summarize how Mongol armies built an empire. Describe China under Mongol rule.

Understand how the Ming restored Chinese rule. Explain why the Ming explored the seas for only a brief period. Mongols Build an Empire Mongols Conquer China Mongol armies conquered Asian steppe lands with ease but had issues with walled cities

They had to learn to use gunpowder from the Turks and Chinese in order to fight better. Genghis Khan will not live to see the conquest of all of China but his heirs for 150 years will continue to dominate Asia Impact of Mongol Rule Once Mongols conquered an area they left it alone except the conquered people had to pay their taxes Mongol rulers were pretty tolerant b/c of the example of Genghis Khan. He listened to people of different faiths and respected city people Mongols Build an Empire

The Mongol Peace In the 1200s and 1300s G.K. sons and grandsons established peace and order in their domains. This time is known as Pax Mongolica Trade will flourish across Eurasia From China gunpowder use will make it to Europe Papermaking techniques will also make it to Europe Crops and trees will come from the Middle East into East Asia

Mongols Build an Empire Mongol archers on horseback, as shown in this Ming illustration, were tough warriors who could swiftly shoot arrows at enemies from all sides. Mongols Build an Empire Analyze Maps At its height, the Mongol empire was the worlds largest up to that time. Describe the growth of the empire between 1227 and 1294. Did Genghis Khan or his successors conquer the most land? Mongols Rule China

Government Kublai will separate Mongols from Chinese The name of his dynasty will be the Yuan dynasty Only Mongols can serve in the military Mongols and a few non Chinese people will hold important govt. positions Chinese officials will still rule provinces

Kublai will build a walled city in Chinese fashion but the architecture in his palace will be Arab Contact b/w Asia and Europe will continue. Pope will send priests, Muslims will set up communities, and goods like gunpowder, porcelain, and cards will go to Europe Mongols Rule China

Marco Polo Describes China In 1271 Marco leaves with his uncle and father to China He spends 17 years under the service of Kublai When he returns back to Venice he will describe the wealth and splendor of China He describes the palace and mail service This will spark interest in Asias riches by Europeans. Mongols Rule China Kublai Khan, the emperor of China, is portrayed as he was in the 1260s, an alert, vigorous, simply attired man. He wears the symbolic white robes of a Mongol shaman. Chinese Rule Restored by the Ming

Ming Policies They restore civil service system Confucian learning returns as the road to success

Civil service test becomes harder A board of censor watch the bureaucracy, eliminating corruption Economic Revival The plains of East China will support 100 million people Better fertilization will make more crops From America they will get corn and sweet potatoes Chinese cities are home to many industries like porcelain, paper, and tools The Ming will limit the extent and duration of trade with Europeans They will only accept precious metals for their goods, affecting global trade Chinese Rule Restored by the Ming

Flourishing Culture Ming China has a revival of arts and literature Ming artists will create their own type of landscaping painting and porcelain

Ming vase will be the most valuable and popular Chinese export New forms of literature for the common man will emerge They will produce novels and the first detective stories Ming Math, Science, and Technology In the late 15 century China was the richest civilization in the world with technology far beyond what was in Europe Ming scholars integrated their own traditions with Western mathematics and science that they learn from Jesuit missionaries In 1629 the emperor will allow the Chinese calendar to be reform using Western technology like telescopes Using new technology and Jesuit help, they created new star atlas and fixed the Chinese calendar Chinese Rule Restored by the Ming

Zhu Yuanzhang ousted the Mongols and led China as the Hongwu emperor, shown here, for 30 years. He founded the Ming dynasty, which ruled China for almost 300 years. Chinese Fleets Explore the Seas The Great Fleets of Zheng He Between 1405-1433 Zheng He made 7 expeditions in order to promote trade collect tribute from across the Western Seas Fleet size of 62 huge ships and 200 smaller ones with a crew of

28,000 sailors. The largest ships were about 400 feet long He explored the coast of South East Asia, India, entrance to the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf Chinese merchants will settle in India and South East Asia Chinese Fleets Explore the Seas Zheng Hes epic voyages were multipurpose expeditions of exploration, diplomacy, and trade to Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. Analyze Data Which voyage had the largest number of ships? Chinese Fleets Explore the Seas

The Ming Turn Inward In 1435 the Ming Emperor will ban the building of huge ships In the 1500s the Ming will carefully limit the extent and duration of trade. They will demand silver and gold for goods Europeans wanted like silk, tea, and porcelain The Ming stopped their huge navies because of cost. They did not want to mingle with outside cultures b/c they felt their society was the best in the world They want to preserve their traditions, which they saw as a source of stability

This loyalty will weaken China. Columbus will sail west from Spain in order to find a new way to Asia Chinese Fleets Explore the Seas Zheng He and his crew and ships are portrayed in this colorful relief at the Gedong Batu Temple in Semarang, Java Indonesia. An annual celebration commemorates his visit. Quiz: Mongols Build an Empire How did the Mongol rulers change once their conquests were complete? A. They were intolerant and increased the tribute people were required to pay.

B. They were not oppressive but permitted people to continue with their lives with relatively little change. C. They were insecure and always preparing for invasion from their neighbors. D. They were generous and eliminated the burden of paying tribute. Quiz: Mongols Rule China How did Kublai Khan organize Mongol rule in China? A. He reserved the highest government jobs for Mongols and said that only Chinese could serve in the military. B. He said that only Mongols could rule in the provinces

and that both Chinese and Mongols could serve in the military. C. He divided the highest government jobs between Mongols and Chinese and said that only Mongols could rule in the provinces. D. He permitted only Mongols to serve in the military and reserved the most powerful government positions for Mongols. Quiz: Chinese Rule Restored by the Ming How did Ming rulers restore an earlier style of Chinese government? A. They founded a new dynasty, moved the capital to

Nanjing, and encouraged Buddhism. B. They restored the civil service system and renewed the emphasis on Confucian scholarship. C. They repaired the canal system, and new technologies increased manufacturing output. D. They reorganized the imperial ranking system and added important government offices. Quiz: Chinese Fleets Explore the Seas What occurred in 1435 that changed Chinas relationship with the rest of the world? A. The Ming emperor prevented the building of large ships and stopped expeditions, which halted overseas

exploration. B. Zheng He explored the coasts of Southeast Asia and India and the entrances to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. C. The Ming emperor expanded the building of seagoing ships for trade expeditions, thereby promoting overseas exploration. D. A Portuguese merchant arrived in China to negotiate trade agreements and was welcomed by the Ming emperor.

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