Advertising Design: Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals
Advertising Design: Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals Chapter 6 Adweek Media and Harris Interactive Survey Ads somewhat or very interesting (55%) Ads not interesting at all (12%) Ads very influential in purchase decisions (6%) Nearly half of 18-34 year-olds influenced
by advertising 37% of 35-44 year-olds influenced by advertising 28% of individuals 45+ influenced by advertising Chapter Overview Advertising design Hierarchy of effects model Means-end theory Advertising appeals
Creative Brief Review: The objective The target audience The message theme The support The constraints Hierarchy of Effects Model
Awareness Cognitive Knowledge Attitudes From Ch. 3 Affective Liking HEM
Product attributes Consumer benefits Leverage points Personal values Executional framework Personal Values Pleasure Security Self-fulfillment Self-respect Sense of
belonging Social acceptance age, Personal values vary by culture, need for survival, etc. Wisdom
Comfortable life Equality Excitement Freedom Happiness Inner peace Mature love
Means-End Theory Means-end chain Message (means) lead to end state (personal values) Means-End Conceptualization of Components of Advertising Strategy (MECCAS) Six elements Product attributes Consumer benefits Leverage points Taglines Personal values Executional framework
Leverage Points Moves consumer from benefits to personal value Links attributes benefits personal values Associated with attitude change Ads need powerful leverage points Means-End Chain Product Attributes
Executional Framework Leverage Point Consumer Benefits Personal Values Means-End Chain for Milk Attributes Benefits
Personal Values Low Fat Healthy Calcium Healthy Bones Ingredients Good Taste
Vitamins Enhanced sexual ability Self Respect Wisdom Comfortable Life Wisdom Pleasure Happiness Excitement Fun Pleasure
F ig 6 . 3 Advertising Appeals Fear Humor Sex Music Rationalit y Emotions Scarcity
Fear Appeal Fear increases interest and is remembered Severity and vulnerability Severity level of consequence Vulnerability probability of event occurring Actions controlled by response costs
Humor Appeal Used in 30% of ads. Excellent in capturing attention. Score high in recall tests. Should be related directly to customer benefit. Sex Appeal Subliminal techniques Nudity or partial nudity Sexual
suggestiveness Overt sexuality Sensuality Sex Appeal Breaks through clutter Use has increased Not as effective as in the past Advertisers shifting to more subtle sexual cues. Sex Appeal Nudity or Partial Nudity
Used for wide variety of products Attracts attention Not always designed to solicit sexual response Underwear commercials Decorative models Booth bunnies Sensuality Approaches Women respond more favorably More sophisticated
Relies on imagination Images of romance and love can be enticing Are Sex Appeals Effective? Research Results: Sex and nudity do increase attention. Rated as being more interesting. Often leads to strong feelings about the ad. Brand recall is lower. Often interferes with message comprehension.
May impact feelings toward the brand Disadvantages of Sex Appeals Less influence today Reduces brand recall Affects comprehension Creates dissatisfaction with ones body Stereotyping
Sex Appeals in International Advertising Varies across countries Determined by religion, culture, and values Moslem countries Middle eastern countries European countries France United States Chile
Music Appeal Has intrusive value Gains attention Increases retention of visual information Can increase persuasiveness Rational Appeal Based on hierarchy of effects model. Used by business-to-business advertisers. Well-suited for Print media
Complex products High involvement products Emotional Appeal Based on three ideas: Consumers ignore most ads Rational ads go unnoticed Emotional ads can capture attention Key to developing brand loyalty. Effie Awards humor and emotions. Use in b-to-b advertising increasing. Works well when tied to other
appeals. Scarcity Appeal Based on Limited supply Limited time to purchase Tied with promotional tools such as contests, sweepstakes, and coupons. Encourage customers to take action.
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