LESSON 4 & LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Within this

LESSON 4 & LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Within this

LESSON 4 & LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Within this lesson you will cover: To gain an understanding of how designs/products are modified to make them more efficient to manufacture and disposal. How the choice of materials affects its use, care and disposal. How to apply the six Rs of sustainability in relation to the product life cycle. Why and how manufacturing processes to make a product could be reduced in reference to the life cycle assessment. HOMEWORK MARKING Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. 1- Sustainability means not causing any permanent damage to the environment (1 mark) and not using up finite resources (1 mark) 2. Planned obsolescence means that a product has a planned life expectancy (limit) so it will become unfashionable or out of date

(1 mark) 3. Transport contributes to the carbon footprint by air pollution (1 mark), including nitrous oxides which is a significant contributor to global warming through emissions of carbon dioxide (1mark) 4. Moving raw materials to a factory, distributing stock, delivering products to the retail outlets. (1 mark for each relevant answer) 5. Using an electrical product contributes to the carbon footprint PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Today we are primarily focussing on the MANUFACTURIN G PHASE of the product life cycle. We also need to consider the disposal element too. Remember everything we do is part of a CYCLICAL

Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Optional video if time allows (20 minutes): Where does stuff come from? Where does it go? What happens on the journey? Is it a linear flow or a cycle? DO NOW PROBLEM SOLVE Here is an image of a product which you will have seen and most probably used. But have you ever wondered what is inside it? What makes it work? Yes you can see the OUTSIDE but what about the inside? On the image sheet provided glue

it in your exercise book and write down EVERYTHING that you believe is inside the product. Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. DO NOW ANSWERS Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. How did you do? Did you get any of these? Are you surprised by the AMOUNT of components? PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Q: Why do you think it is important for the

environment that manufacturers include disassembly? The importance of disassembly to the environment. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MeN5dUSHQT0 PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Why do we destroy? Disassembly is the art of deconstruction to advance knowledge. If we were to simply rip something apart to see what is inside, we would learn very little. If we were to carefully deconstruct an artefact, we can learn far more. What can we gain?

Materials Fixings Technological concepts New devices Methods of control Specialist components Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Disassembly of a computer mouse Ok, so I didnt have a spare Segway

While we take this apart, try to put forward comments on Number of processes Choice of materials (and their affects in use, care and disposal Reduce/reuse/rethink/recycle Product maintenance PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Disassembly of a computer mouse As you are taking apart the computer mouse I would like you to: You will be working in small groups (your tables) and taking apart an electrical product. You will be provided with plastic trays and as a group you need to organise yourselves to take

the product apart and work out how to put it back again. Photograph the inside of the product and note any components that you recognise. [These will be printed for your exercise book]. Once the item is stripped take a final photo and then work as a team to reassemble the PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Reminder on production scale One-Off Quantity of 1 Jewellery Made to measure suit Specialist sports equipment Batch Production Mass Production

Quantity of Quantity low 100s, maybe WHICH10,000+ Cars low 1000s PRODUCTION Electronic goods Pottery Bread phones, kitchen SCALE WOULD Furniture electrical THE Flat-pack furniture COMPUTER

So, what impact would this have on the same MOUSE FALL points? INTO AND Number of processes Choice of materials (and their affects in use, care and disposal WHY? Reduce/reuse/rethink/recycle Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY How choice of materials affects use, care & disposal Labelling of materials for separation European standards of labelling Non language based Not stickers Plastics often hidden inside why?

Material choice Emotional link e.g. wood gives warmth Structural & strength need Ability to be processed e.g. injection moulding Costs and availability Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY How choice of materials affects use, care & disposal Materials Care Some materials react badly to chemicals & environment. Upkeep e.g. wooden worktops need oiling yearly Scratching/wear e.g. screen protectors & cases for phones.

Making products easy to disassemble Using snap together fixings Avoid glues & welding (including friction welding of non identical materials) Using standard components for easy disassembly of more hazardous items (e.g. safety screws on children's electrical toys) Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY How choice of materials affects use, care & disposal Using the computer mouse you have now taken apart in your exercise book make notes evaluating the product in relation to:

Material choice Labelling of materials for separation Materials care Making products easy to disassemble PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. The application of the 6 Rs of sustainability. Reduce quantity of materials Reducing materials volume, without affecting structural need. Victorian bridges vs. modern. / Coke cans. Reducing toxins where alternatives are available (e.g. cleaning products) Reduction in energy usage

e.g. EU rules on maximum wattage for vacuum cleaners. Reuse components & parts Using same part across range reducing need for moulds, and manufacturing setup e.g. indicator stalk on cars Car manufacturers looking to reclaim from parts old cars and reuse certain parts, e.g. windscreen wiper motors. Buy new base computer, keep old keyboard / screen PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient.

The application of the 6 Rs of sustainability. Rethink by using eco-friendly alternative materials Ashcrete Vs. Concrete Glass bottle Vs. Plastic throwaway Longlife shopping bags Vs. throwaway bags. Lego and their search for after plastic MORE INFORMATION Recycle materials into new products Metals are endlessly recyclable Recycled plastics into decking and street furniture NB: virgin stock material

where and why it is used. Batteries out of waste glass PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Product Maintenance. Temporary & integral fixings Get you home tyres Emergency clamps until engineer can visit & produce permanent solution. Integral fixings are components deformed so they interlock as a mechanically fastened joint e.g. lanced tabs, seaming, snap fit.

Standardised parts Allows for engineers to use standard tools (e.g. M6 bolts). Specific suppliers can supply multiple manufacturers saving everybody money e.g. tyres for cars. Security screws to prevent non certified people tampering with things that could hurt them (e.g. power tools & electrical work) PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Product Maintenance. Service/Repair/ Replacement Extend life and

save money Maintain performance & safety of product Serviceable hatches E.g. Computers (RAM and hard drives), Cars (exhaust pipes, clutches etc.) & batteries in remote control Upgrade software Ability to have most stable & secure systems. Update performance without hardware costs Longevity of products e.g. Satnavs of 15 years ago. e.g. Tesla updated their software to shave a second off the 0-60mph time.

LCA & THE COMPUTER MOUSE Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. In terms of the computer mouse its outer shell and most of its internal mechanical parts, including the shafts and spoked wheels, are made of (ABS) polymer. The ABS is injection-moulded into its desired shape. The ball is metal that is coated in rubber. Most companies including those that manufacture computer mice have a responsibility to produce polymer based products which follow the life cycle assessment formula (LCA). The computer mouse is made out of ABS which is a thermoplastic which is EASIER to recycle and SEPARATE during this process.

This means it will LESS LIKELY end up in LANDFILL. FINAL TASK Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Modify the mouse to make it more efficient to manufacture focusing on the following: Task 1 Why and how you would reduce the number of manufacturing processes to make a product) Task 2 How choice of materials affects the use, care and disposal of products Task 3

Application of the six Rs of sustainability Product maintenance (fixings, parts, and even software) Task 4 Product maintenance (fixings, parts, and even software) LETS REVIEW YOUR LEARNING Objective - Learner will gain knowledge & understanding of how products are modified to make them more efficient. Have you met the learning objectives? Modify designs to make them more efficient to manufacture, including:

Why and how you would reduce the number of manufacturing processes to make a product How choice of materials affects the use, care and disposal of products Application of the six Rs of sustainability Product maintenance (fixings, parts, and even software)

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